Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a severe neuropsychiatric complication of liver failure, in which there is injury to brain cells, particularly neurons and glia. Brain cells and their function are greatly influenced by omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, essential components of cell membrane phospholipids in the brain that are crucial to normal function. This study assessed the effect of chronic fish oil (FO) supplementation (rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) on behavior and oxidative stress of Wistar rats subjected to HE due to a liver failure caused by thioacetamide (TAA) intoxication. The FO supplementation started in an early phase of brain development, that is, at the 21st day of life, and extended to the 122th day of life. The results indicated that cognitive function, specifically spatial memory, was markedly affected in the group that received TAA. Most notably, the ill effects caused by TAA administration were counteracted by FO supplementation. In addition to behavioral improvements, FO also promoted reduction in levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and superoxide dismutase activity in hippocampus and cerebral cortex. In summary, FO protected against spatial memory deficits and oxidative stress caused by HE in rats subjected to liver lesion due to TAA intoxication. Further studies are necessary to understand the mechanism underlying FO behaviors in rats subjected to encephalopathy.