The present world energy situation urgently requires exploring and developing alternate, sustainable sources for fuel. Biofuels have proven to be an effective energy source but more needs to be produced to meet energy goals. Whereas first generation biofuels derived from mainly corn and sugarcane continue to be used and produced, the contentious debate between ‘’feedstock versus foodstock” continues. The need for sources that can be grown under different environmental conditions has led to exploring newer sources. Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive source for production of biofuel, but pretreatment costs to remove lignin are high and the process is time consuming. Genetically modified plants that have increased sugar or starch content, modified lignin content, or produce cellulose degrading enzymes are some options that are being explored and tested. This review focuses on current research on increasing production of biofuels by genetic engineering of plants to have desirable characteristics. Recent patents that have been filed in this area are also discussed.
Keywords: Biofuels, cellulose, cellulases, fermentation, hemicellulase, lignin, lignocelluloses, saccharification, Bio-Ethanol Production, cyanobacteria, LIGNIN CONTENT, Pectin, Plants Expressing a Ligninase, homogalacturonan improves, juvenile phase, swollenin, cellulosic bioethanol, Saccharum officinarum