Adiponectin represents one of the most abundant and well-studied adipokines that has been implicated as a major protective factor against the adverse metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of obesity. The main insulin-sensitizing action of adiponectin results from decrease in hepatic gluconeogenesis and increase in muscle glucose transport and, secondly from enhancement of energy consumption and fatty acid oxidation in peripheral tissues with the aim of increasing ATP production. Besides these effects, the potential role of adiponectin on insulin secretion, as well as on energy expenditure, through central action, has also been investigated. Accumulating evidence from clinical, experimental animal and genetic studies support a close association between hypoadiponectinemia and insulin resistance/ type 2 diabetes. The question that arises is whether hypoadiponectinemia is the result of insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes or the cause of this disorder. Based on the observation that various drug classes exert beneficial effects on insulin resistance partly by increasing plasma adiponectin levels, it could hypothesized that substances that enhance or mimic adiponectin to activate its receptors and/or postreceptor signaling pathway may be a promising therapeutic strategy in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. However, many questions need to be addressed before adiponectin can be used as a potent therapeutic target.
Keywords: Adiponectin, inflammation, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, visceral adipocity, Adiponectin, inflammation, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, "visceral adipocity", "abundant", "pokines", "metabolic", "cardiovascular", "sulin-sensitizing"