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Current HIV Research


ISSN (Print): 1570-162X
ISSN (Online): 1873-4251

Differential Regulation of Neurotoxin in HIV Clades: Role of Cocaine and Methamphetamine

Author(s): Madhavan P.N. Nair and Thangavel Samikkannu

Volume 10 , Issue 5 , 2012

Page: [429 - 434] Pages: 6

DOI: 10.2174/157016212802138742

Price: $65


Studies have demonstrated that infection with HIV-1 (subtypes) clades might differentially contribute to HIV- 1-associated neuro cognitive disorder (HAND). Substance abuse and illicit drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamine (METH) are also known to play a role in neuronal impairments. Neurotoxin quinolinic acid (QUIN) and arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites are regulators of central nervous system (CNS) functions. These neurotoxins are dysregulated during HIV infection, and substance abuse exacerbates immune and neuronal dysfunctions, leading to dementia and neurocognitive impairments. Studies have demonstrated an association between HIV infection and substance abuse in terms of viral replication and disease progression in Neuro-AIDS. In this review, we briefly discuss the effect of cocaine and METH, and differential role of HIV-1 B and C induced indoleamine-2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mediated induction of neurotoxin QUIN and AA metabolites that implicate neuronal dysfunctions.

Keywords: HIV-1 clade B and C, cocaine, methamphatamine, dementia and neurocognitive, QUIN, HAND, COX-2, IDO, AA.

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