Abuse of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS), including amphetamine, methamphetamine (METH), and 3,4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy), has become a major public health problem worldwide. Use of these stimulants has significant psychiatric and medical consequences, including psychosis, dependence, overdose, and death. METH abuse in particular is an extremely serious and growing problem in many countries. The development of treatments for METH-related problems is particularly critical for users who experience persistent psychosis, pregnant women and women with children, gay and bisexual men, and users involved in the criminal justice system. However, there are currently no pharmacological treatments for the wide range of symptoms associated with METH-related problems. One of the reasons for this problem is that our knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the development of METH-induced psychosis and dependence is limited. In this article, we review recent reports on potential pharmacotherapies (naltrexone, minocycline, antioxidants, immunotherapy, and dopaminergic, serotonergic, cholinergic, and GABAergic agents) for the treatment of ATS abusers.
Keywords: Stimulants, abuse, dependence, pharmacotherapy, immunotherapy, methamphetamine, central nervous system (CNS), pulmonary inhalation, immunodeficiency, NeuroAIDS, dementia, appetite, encephalopathy, anxiety, confusion, insomnia, paranoia, hallucinations, mood disturbances, deficits in neurocognitive, psychosis, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), tomography, narcolepsy, cataplexy, obstructive sleep, placebo-controlled, smoking cessation, monoamines, hyperactivity disorder, norepinephrine transporters, urine, methylphenidate, Serotonergic Systems, validation, ion channels, receptor, Cholinergic System, acetylcholinesterase, neurons, glutathione, GSH system enzymes, polymorphism, infusion, Minocycline, blood-brain barrier, density, metabolite, serum protein-binding, pregnant drug abusers