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Current Drug Targets - CNS & Neurological Disorders


ISSN (Print): 1568-007X
ISSN (Online): 1568-007X

Pharmacological Findings Contribute to the Understanding of the Main Physiological Mechanisms of Memory Retrieval

Author(s): Daniela M. Barros, Luciana A. Izquierdo, Jorge H. Medina and Ivan Izquierdo

Volume 2 , Issue 2 , 2003

Page: [81 - 94] Pages: 14

DOI: 10.2174/1568007033482931

Price: $65


Recent pharmacological findings have shown that retrieval of one-trial avoidance learning requires glutamate receptors, cAMP-dependent protein kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinases in the hippocampus, entorhinal, posterior parietal and anterior cingulate cortex. It requires AMPA but not other type of glutamate receptors or the protein kinases in the amygdala. Retrieval is modulated by dopamine D1, ß-noradrenergic, serotonin 1A and cholinergic receptors in the four cortical structures mentioned, and by ß-noradrenergic receptors in the basolateral amygdala. Further, retrieval is also modulated by peripheral ACTH, glucocorticoids, vasopressin, ß-endorphin and catecholamines, these hormones probably act through ß-noradrenergic receptor systems in the basolateral amygdala. Exposure to novelty or the systemic administration of antidepressant drugs prior to retention tests enhances retrieval, even for very remote memories. The effect of novelty is mediated by molecular mechanisms similar to those of retrieval itself.

Keywords: memory retrieval, mechanisms of retrieval, involvement of brain structures in retrieval, modulation of retrieval

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