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Current HIV Research

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1570-162X
ISSN (Online): 1873-4251

Advances in Vaccine Adjuvants For Infectious Diseases

Author(s): Manmohan Singh and Indresh Srivastava

Volume 1, Issue 3, 2003

Page: [309 - 320] Pages: 12

DOI: 10.2174/1570162033485195

Price: $65

Abstract

A HIV Vaccine, particularly that based on recombinant proteins and plasmid DNA, is likely to be less reactogenic than traditional vaccines, but also less immunogenic. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of new and improved adjuvants and delivery system for combination with HIV vaccine antigens. Adjuvants can be broadly separated into two classes, based on their principal mechanisms of action; “vaccine delivery systems” and “immunostimulatory adjuvants”. Vaccine delivery systems are generally particulate formulations e.g. emulsions, microparticles, iscoms and liposomes, and mainly function to target associated antigens into antigen presenting cells (APC). In contrast, immunostimulatory adjuvants are predominantly derived from pathogens and often represent pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMP) e.g. LPS, MPL, CpG DNA, which activate cells of the innate immune system. The discovery of more potent adjuvants may allow the development of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines against HIV. In addition, new adjuvants may also allow vaccines to be delivered mucosally.

Keywords: hiv vaccine adjuvants, immunostimulators, vaccine delivery systems, microparticles, emulsions


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