Despite the development and use of effective antiretroviral therapy, HIV dementia persists and has important socio-economic consequences. Significant progress has been made in our current understanding of the neuropathogenesis of HIV infection, and it is clear that adjunctive neuroprotective therapy in addition to antiretroviral therapy are necessary for prevention and treatment of this entity. In this manuscript, we discuss the rationale and the pathophysiological mechanisms that support the development of neuroprotective therapy for HIV dementia. We review all the placebo controlled clinical trials conducted to date with neuromodulatory / neuroprotective therapy in patients with HIV dementia and discuss their outcomes. We also provide a thorough review of potential new treatments for HIV dementia based on the experimental literature. We hope that this manuscript will serve as an important guide for future approaches for clinical trials and drug development for patients with HIV dementia.