Accumulating evidence implicates inflammatory processes in the development of a number of neurodegenerative diseases and demonstrates that neurons and microglia can be a source for various cytokines, which are believed to be involved in neuropathology, and therefore can serve as targets for therapeutic treatment. Moreover, it is now established that many of these pro-inflammatory molecules, commonly associated with the peripheral immune system, are also produced within the central nervous system (CNS). The term “;cytokine network”; has been widely used to describe cytokine biology in the brain. However, the function of this network has not been well-characterised. It is believed that understanding the function of this network might have important clinical applications. This article reviews recent and current developments in cytokine research that pertain to the development of new strategies targeting cytokines in the brain, thus opening up new avenues for novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of various pathological conditions and diseases of the CNS.