Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) was once considered as an ideal anti-diabetic candidate for its important role in maintaining glucose homeostasis through the regulation of islet hormone secretion, as well as hepatic and gastric function. However, the major therapeutic obstacle for using native GLP-1 as a therapeutic agent is its very short half-life primarily due to their degradation by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV). In this study, GLP-1 analogues with modifications in amino acid site 8, 22 and 23 were synthesized using solid phase peptide synthesis. Resistance of these analogues to DPP-IV cleavage was investigated in vitro by incubation of the peptides with DPP-IV or human plasma. Glucoregulating efficacy of the analogues was evaluated in normal Kunming mice using intraperitoneal glucose tolerance model. Glucose lowering effect of combination therapy (analogue plus Vildagliptin) has also been studied. In vitro studies showed that the modified analogues were much more stable than native GLP-1 (nearly 100% of the peptide keep intact after 4 h incubation). In vivo biological activity evaluation revealed that His8-EEE (the most potent GLP-1 analogues in this study) exhibited significantly improved glycemic control potency (approximately 4.1-fold over saline and 2.5-fold over GLP-1) and longer time of active duration (at least 5 h). Combination therapy also showed the trend of its superiority over mono-therapy. Modified analogues showed increased potency and biological half-time compared with the native GLP-1, which may help to understand the structure-activity relationship of GLP-1 analogues.