The definition of Natural Killer (NK) cells has undergone dramatic modification with the advance of immunological research tools. NK cells can no longer be classified only as indiscriminate killer innate immune cells. NK cells are now known to form functional relationships with accessory cells to shape and promote the adaptive immune response. Recently, antigen specific and cytokine induced memory NK cells have been demonstrated to exhibit the characteristic phases of an adaptive immune cell, including extended persistence and robust function in response to reexposure. New findings in basic NK immunobiology indicate that the role of NK cells is underappreciated and these cells may potentially be manipulated for the development of anti-viral therapies.