Extracellular adenosine 5-triphosphate (eATP) is an important mediator of cell-to-cell interactions in the nervous, vascular and immune system. Its low release by different cells, as mast cells, platelets, red blood cells, T cells and also by nerve terminals, requires different mechanisms and especially occurs in physiologic conditions. However, in pathologic conditions, as inflammation, eATP can highly increase, following its release by damaged cells. Elevated levels of eATP provoke the activation of some purinergic receptors, mainly the P2XR, which are located on mononuclear phagocytes, T cells and endothelial cells. The activation by eATP of inflammatory/immune cells leads to their release of some inflammatory mediators, such as the cytokines IL-1β and TNFα. These cytokines are able to further activate other cells, as endothelial cells, favouring their increased expression of adhesion molecules; such process enhances circulating cell recruitment to the inflamed tissue. The blockade of the purinergic-mediated activation of the inflammatory/immune cells might represent a useful tool to reduce the spreading of the inflammatory/immune response. This review will summarize the beneficial effects of the use of periodate oxidized ATP (oATP), an inhibitor of P2XR, in the treatment of some experimental models of inflammatory/immune diseases. The article is a short review of recent patents related to the anti-inflammatory/analgesic/antiangiogenic effects of oATP and to its role in the autoimmune diseases.
Keywords: Inflammation, autoimmunity, pain, extracellular ATP, oxidized ATP (oATP)