In spite of numerous studies focused on schizophrenia, its etiology remain unknown. If we bear in mind that schizophrenia is a progressive syndrome where genetic and environmental components contribute, with impairment in the brain maturation as a result, it is conceivable that research seeking to unveil its etiology should focus on dysfunctions in systems responsible for the control of brain neurodevelopment. Recent scientific evidence has pointed to a possible role for the NO (nitric oxide) in schizophrenia. NO is a gas with unique chemistry and influences the release of neurotransmitters, learning, memory and neurodevelopment. This review tried to focus on researches that examined alterations in NOmediated neurotransmission in patients with schizophrenia. The search was performed in Pubmed, Scielo, and Lilacs, using the keywords Schizophrenia and Nitric Oxide. The search on Pubmed yielded 138 matches, from which 40 were selected. No studies were found in the others databases. In summary, we note that there are studies supporting apparently contradictory results: some of them suggesting a increase of the NO-mediated neurotransmission, and another part supporting a decrease. We discuss these findings, and our overall impression is that the better designed studies found evidence pointing to a disruption in NO-mediated neurotransmission in schizophrenia.