Resveratrol, a polyphenolic phytoalexin, is a very effective antioxidant that also exhibits strong antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies have provided support for the use of resveratrol in human cancer chemoprevention, in combination with either chemotherapeutic drugs or cytotoxic factors for a most efficient treatment of drug refractory tumor cells. Resveratrol is also widely used in topical preparations, as a chemoprotective compound against development of several cutaneous disorders, including skin cancer. Nevertheless, the combined effect of resveratrol and UVA irradiation on cellular toxicity and DNA damage has never been assessed. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of resveratrol on cell fate in immortalized human keratinocytes HaCaT cells. The results indicated that resveratrol potentiates the production of significant amounts of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2- deoxyguanosine in UVA-irradiated genomic DNA. Moreover, the combination of resveratrol with UVA significantly enhances the induction of DNA strand breaks and cell death in HaCaT keratinocytes. The conclusion is a potential hazardous effect of topical application of resveratrol, particularly on regions exposed to sunlight.