The increasing incidence of thyroid cancer is associated with a higher number of advanced disease characterized by the loss of cancer differentiation and metastatic spread. The knowledge of the molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer has made possible the development of new therapeutic drugs able to blockade the oncogenic kinases (BRAF V600E, RET/PTC) or signaling kinases [vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFR)] involved in cellular growth and proliferation. Some clinical trials have been conducted showing the ability of targeted therapies (sorafenib, sunitinib, axitinib, imanitib, vandetanib, pazopanib, gefitinib) in stabilizing the course of the disease. Until now, however, no consensus guidelines have been established for patient selection and more data on toxicities and side effects are needed to be collected.
Keywords: Anaplastic thyroid cancer, targeted molecular therapies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, aurora kinase inhibitors, RET, BRAF, VEGFR, V600E, TKIs, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-, &, γ