A growing body of evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of micro- and macrovascular diabetic complications. The increased oxidative stress in subjects with type 2 diabetes is a consequence of several abnormalities, including hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia, each of which contributes to mitochondrial superoxide overproduction in endothelial cells of large and small vessels as well as the myocardium. The unifying pathophysiological mechanism that underlies diabetic complications could be explained by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via: (1) the polyol pathway flux, (2) increased formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), (3) increased expression of the receptor for AGEs, (4) activation of protein kinase C isoforms, and (5) overactivity of the hexosamine pathway. Furthermore, the effects of oxidative stress in individuals with type 2 diabetes are compounded by the inactivation of two critical anti-atherosclerotic enzymes: endothelial nitric oxide synthase and prostacyclin synthase. Of interest, the results of clinical trials in patients with type 2 diabetes in whom intensive management of all the components of the metabolic syndrome (hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, and essential hypertension) was attempted (with agents that exert a beneficial effect on serum glucose, serum lipid concentrations, and blood pressure, respectively) showed a decrease in adverse cardiovascular end points. The purpose of this review is (1) to examine the mechanisms that link oxidative stress to micro- and macrovascular complications in subjects with type 2 diabetes and (2) to consider the therapeutic opportunities that are presented by currently used therapeutic agents which possess antioxidant properties as well as new potential antioxidant substances.
Keywords: Type 2 diabetes mellitus, Oxidative stress, Macrovascular complications, Microvascular complications, Metabolic polypill, Dyslipidemia, Hyperinsulinemia, Hyperglycemia, redoxsensitive transcription factor B (NFkB), Glutathione (GSH), NADPH, Cardiovascular disease