The targeted therapies available to treat metastatic kidney cancer include vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors, bevacizumab, sorafenib, sunitinib, pazopanib, and the mTor inhibitors temsirolimus and everolimus. These agents have significantly improved patient outcomes but are associated with toxicities. The most common toxicities seen with the VEGF inhibitors are hypertension, fatigue, and hand- foot syndrome. The mTor inhibitors exhibit a different toxicity profile which includes hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Recognition and understanding the mechanism of the toxicities is crucial for optimal patient management.
Keywords: Advanced renal cell carcinoma, targeted drugs, toxicity, mechanism, Hypertension, Proteinuria, Cardiotoxicity, Gastrointestinal Toxicities, Arterial Thrombosis, Hepatic Toxicities, Pulmonary Toxicity