Increasing evidence indicates that oxidative damage exists in schizophrenia. Available literature about possible mechanisms of oxidative stress induction was reviewed. Furthermore, possibilities of measuring biomarkers of schizophrenia outside the central nervous system compartment, their specificity for different types of schizophrenia and potential therapeutic strategies to prevent oxidative injuries in schizophrenia were discussed. Data were extracted from published literature found in Medline, Embase, Biosis, Cochrane and Web of Science, together with hand search of references. Search terms were: schizophrenia, oxidative stress, antipsychotics, antioxidants and fatty acids. Finding a sensitive, specific and non invasive biomarker of schizophrenia, which could be measured in peripheral tissue, still stays an important task. Antioxidant enzymes, markers of lipid peroxidation, oxidatively modified proteins and DNA are most commonly used. As it considers the supplemental therapy, according to our meta-analysis vitamin E could potentially improve tardive dyskinesia, while for the effect of therapy with polyunsaturated fatty acids there is no clear evidence. Oxidative stress is a part of the pathology in schizophrenia and appears as a promising field to develop new therapeutic strategies. There is a need for well designed, placebo controlled trials with supplementation therapy in schizophrenia.