Tablets are still the most commonly used dosage form because of the ease of manufacturing, convenience in administration, accurate dosing and excellent stability. Direct compression is the preferred method for the preparation of tablets. However, it has been estimated that less than 20 percent of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) can be processed into tablets via direct compression since the majority of API lack the flow, cohesion or lubricating properties required for direct compression. Increasing trends toward direct compression suggests the need for development of high functional excipients. High functionality of excipients can be obtained by development of new excipients or by particle engineering of existing excipients. Particle engineering using coprocessing provides a way to obtain an excipient with high functionality. Coprocessed excipients are the mixture of two or more excipients interacting at sub-particle level; that can provide an excipient with improved functionality as well as masking undesirable properties. Coprocessing is very cost effective method of providing high functional excipient. The present review discusses the advantages of coprocessed excipients, role of material science in coprocessing, methods of coprocessing of excipients and properties of various coprocessed excipients available in the market.
Keywords: Coprocessed excipient, coprocessing, direct compression, high functional excipients, particle engineering, tablet, dry granulation, moisture effect, lubricating properties, functional excipient