Nowadays, influenza virus is still a big threat to human. Hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) are the two viral surface proteins, which play important roles in the life cycle of influenza virus. Current influenza vaccines and anti-influenza drugs work mainly by interfering with the functions of the two proteins. In this review, we will display some recent studies about the two proteins. As to HA, this review covers a lot including its fusion function, receptor specificity, antigenic shift hypothesis, novel antibodies and various inhibitors in order to deeply discuss this protein. As to NA, this review mainly focuses on studies about the newly identified 150-cavity of group-1 NAs and shows some untypical NA inhibitors aiming to provide a broader range of lead compounds for anti-influenza drug design.