Sample preparation is a very important and essential step in environmental analysis. A brief overview of modern sample preparation such as solvent based methods, sorptive, membrane - assisted and instrumental methods which have been recently applied to extract and preconcentrate organic analytes from different environmental matrices, is presented. The different requirements of each methodology (and its modes of implementation), especially the extraction phase, are discussed. Instead of a comprehensive list of applications, the implementation of these techniques with selected examples covering mainly research published the last three years is highlighted.
Keywords: Environmental analysis, Chromatography, Organic pollutants, Sample preparation, semivolatile organic contaminants, SVOCs, Single Drop Microextraction, SDME, Headspace single drop microextraction, HS-SDME, Continuous-flow microextraction, CFME, Homogeneous Liquid, –, Liquid Extraction, HLLE, Cloud Point Extraction, CPE, fiber optic-linear array detection spectrophotome-try, FO-LADS, electrothermal atomic absorption spectrome-try, ET-AAS, flame atomic absorption spectrometry, FAAS, Hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction, HF-LPME, supported liquid membrane extraction, SLM, microporous membrane liquid-liquid extraction, MMLLE, membrane-assisted solvent extraction, MASE, stir bar sportive extraction, SBSE, SPE systems, SPE cartridges, SPE-LC, SPE-GC, graphitized carbon black, GBC, Solid-Phase Microextraction, DI-SPME, HS-SPME, poly(dimethylsiloxane, PDMS, poly(acrylate, PA, carboxen/poly(dimethyl-siloxane), CAR/PDMS, carbowax/templated resin, CW/TPR, divinylbenzene/carboxen/poly(dimethylsiloxane, DVB/CAR/PD MS, carbowax-polyethylene glycol, (PEG), polydimethylsiloxane, Headspace Techniques, HS, Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion, MSPD, Soxhlet, microwave-assisted extraction, MAE, accelerated solvent extraction, ASE, pressurized solvent extraction, PSE