This paper will focus on understanding the role and action of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in the molecular and biochemical pathways responsible for the regulation of the survival of hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons in the auditory portion of the inner ear. The pivotal role of ROS/RNS in ototoxicity makes them potentially valuable candidates for effective otoprotective strategies. In this review, we describe the major characteristics of ROS/RNS and the different oxidative processes observed during ototoxic cascades. At each step, we discuss their potential as therapeutic targets because an increasing number of compounds that modulate ROS/RNS processing or targets are being identified.
Keywords: Reactive oxygen species, ototoxicity, aminoglycoside, cisplatin, noise, presbycusis, cochlea, Oxidative Stress, nitro-gen species (RNS), reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive, spiral ganglion neurons, primary auditory neurons, superoxide dismutase (SOD), enzymatic metabolism, sory neurons, neurotransmission, lipopolysaccharide, aminoglycosides, immunoreactivity, spiral limbus, modiolus, Glutathione, Xanthine oxidase activity, Thioredoxin reductase 1 (TxR1), Noise Trauma, Genetic Interventions, Antioxidant Enzymes, Oxidant Scavengers, Metal Chelators, thioredoxin