During the past two decades, many pharmacological strategies have been investigated for the management of painful neuropathies. However, neuropathic pain still remains a clinical challenge. A combination of therapies is often required, but unfortunately in most cases adequate pain relief is not achieved. Recently, attention has been focused on the physiological and pharmacological effects of L-acetylcarnitine in neurological disorders. There are a number of reports indicating that L-acetylcarnitine can be considered as a therapeutic agent in neuropathic disorders including painful peripheral neuropathies. In this review article, we will examine the antinociceptive and the neuroprotective effects of Lacetylcarnitine as tested in clinical studies and in animal models of nerve injury.