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Current Medicinal Chemistry

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 0929-8673
ISSN (Online): 1875-533X

Structural Insight into PPARγ Ligands Binding

Author(s): A. Farce, N. Renault and P. Chavatte

Volume 16 , Issue 14 , 2009

Page: [1768 - 1789] Pages: 22

DOI: 10.2174/092986709788186165

Price: $65

Abstract

Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors (PPARs) are a family of three related nuclear receptors first cloned in 1990. Their involvement in glucidic and lipidic homeostasis quickly made them an attractive target for the treatment of metabolic syndrome, the most prevalent mortality factor in developed countries. They therefore attracted much synthetical efforts, more particularly PPARγ. Supported by a large number of crystallographic studies, data derived from these compounds lead to a fairly clear view of the agonist binding mode into the Ligand Binding Domain (LBD). Nearly all the compounds conform to a three-module structure, with a binder group involved in a series of hydrogen bonds in front of the ligand-dependent Activation Function (AF2), a linker mostly arranged around a phenoxyethyl and an effector end occupying the large cavity of the binding site. Following the marketing of the glitazones and the observation of the hepatotoxicity of troglitazone, variations in the binder led to the glitazars, and then pharmacomodulations have been undertaken on the two other modules, leading to a large family of highly related chemical structures. Some compounds, while still adhering to the three-module structure, diverge from the mainstream, such as the phthalates. Curiously, these plasticizers were known to elicit biological effects that led to the discovery of PPARs but were not actively studied as PPARs agonists. As the biological effects of PPARs became clearer, new compounds were also found to exert at least a part of their actions by the activation of PPARγ.

Keywords: PPARγ, agonist, binding mode, crystallography, docking


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