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Current Hypertension Reviews

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1573-4021
ISSN (Online): 1875-6506

Mechanisms of Dexamethasone-Induced Hypertension

Author(s): Sharon L.H. Ong, Yi Zhang and Judith A. Whitworth

Volume 5, Issue 1, 2009

Page: [61 - 74] Pages: 14

DOI: 10.2174/157340209787314315

Price: $65

Abstract

Hypertension is a well-recognized complication of excess glucocorticoids, both naturally-occurring and synthetic. Dexamethasone is a potent synthetic glucocorticoid, which has widespread clinical applications. As dexamethasone has purely glucocorticoid activity with negligible mineralocorticoid effects, dexamethasone-induced hypertension (DEXHT) models have been used for studying the mechanisms of glucocorticoid-induced hypertension. This review examines the characteristics and mechanisms of DEX-HT, both in the human and experimental animal models. The roles of hemodynamics, volume, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympathetic nervous system, vasodilators including nitric oxide, vasoconstrictors and reactive oxygen species in the pathogenesis of DEX-HT are reviewed and differences from hypertension due to naturally occurring steroids discussed.

Keywords: Dexamethasone-induced hypertension, glucocorticoid, nitric oxide, oxidative stress, pathogenesis, reactive oxygen species

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