Uric acid is an intermediate product formed from the metabolism of purine. The high serum uric acid level is termed as hyperuricemia. Gout, a metabolic disorder is associated with high uric acid level in the body. Hyperuricemia has been noted to upregulate the expression of inflammatory mediators and adhesion molecules. Hyperuricemia has been suggested to be an independent risk factor involved in the pathogenesis of vascular endothelial dysfunction. Moreover, hyperuricemia has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular disorders such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, coronary artery disease and heart failure. The present review critically discussed the possible detrimental role of hyperuricemia in cardiac and vascular endothelial function. Moreover, the signaling mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of hyperuricemia-induced cardiovascular dysfunction has been discussed. In addition, the pharmacological interventions to ameliorate hyperuricemia-induced cardiovascular dysfunction have been delineated.
Keywords: Hyperuricemia, endothelium, vascular endothelial dysfunction, cardiovascular complications