SSAO/VAP-1 is not only involved in the metabolism of biogenic and xenobiotic primary amines and in the production of metabolites with cytotoxic effects or certain physiological actions, but also plays a role, for example, as an adhesion molecule, in leukocyte trafficking, in regulating glucose uptake and in adipocyte homeostasis. Interest in the enzyme has been stimulated by the findings that the activities of the SSAOs are altered (mostly increased) in various human disorders, including diabetes, congestive heart failure, liver cirrhosis, Alzheimers disease and several inflammatory diseases, although the underlying causes are often unknown. On the basis of their insulin-mimicking effect, SSAO substrates are possibly capable of ameliorating metabolic changes in diabetes, while SSAO inhibitors (somewhat of a contradiction) are of potential benefit in preventing diabetes complications, atherosclerosis and oxidative stress contributing to several disorders or modulating inflammation, and hence may be of substantial therapeutic value. Great efforts have been made to develop novel compounds which may lead to future drugs useful in therapy, based on their effects on SSAO/VAP-1, and some of the results relating to novel substrates and inhibitors are surveyed in the present review.
Keywords: Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), vascular adhesion protein 1 (VAP-1), AOC3, bovine serum amine oxidase (BSAO), bovine plasma amine oxidase (BPAO), inhibitors, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease