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Current Hypertension Reviews


ISSN (Print): 1573-4021
ISSN (Online): 1875-6506

Review Article

(Pro)renin Receptor and Blood Pressure Regulation: A Focus on the Central Nervous System

Author(s): Lucas A.C. Souza and Yumei Feng Earley*

Volume 18, Issue 2, 2022

Published on: 12 April, 2022

Page: [101 - 116] Pages: 16

DOI: 10.2174/1570162X20666220127105655

open access plus


The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is classically described as a hormonal system in which angiotensin II (Ang II) is one of the main active peptides. The action of circulating Ang II on its cognate Ang II type-1 receptor (AT1R) in circumventricular organs has important roles in regulating the autonomic nervous system, blood pressure (BP) and body fluid homeostasis, and has more recently been implicated in cardiovascular metabolism. The presence of a local or tissue RAS in various tissues, including the central nervous system (CNS), is well established. However, because the level of renin, the rate-limiting enzyme in the systemic RAS, is very low in the brain, how endogenous angiotensin peptides are generated in the CNS—the focus of this review—has been the subject of considerable debate. Notable in this context is the identification of the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) as a key component of the brain RAS in the production of Ang II in the CNS. In this review, we highlight cellular and anatomical locations of the PRR in the CNS. We also summarize studies using gain- and loss-of function approaches to elucidate the functional importance of brain PRR-mediated Ang II formation and brain RAS activation, as well as PRR-mediated Ang II-independent signaling pathways, in regulating BP. We further discuss recent developments in PRR involvement in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and present perspectives for future directions.

Keywords: (Pro)renin receptor, brain, central nervous system, blood pressure, hypertension, RAS.

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