Generic placeholder image

Current Medical Imaging


ISSN (Print): 1573-4056
ISSN (Online): 1875-6603

Review Article

COVID-19/Any Respiratory Pandemic- What a Radiology Resident Must Know and Report

Author(s): Preethi Philomina* and Anindita Mishra

Volume 18, Issue 7, 2022

Published on: 26 January, 2022

Page: [701 - 711] Pages: 11

DOI: 10.2174/1573405617666211104094537

Price: $65


Radiology has undeniably played a pivotal role in the COVID-19 pandemic. Radiologists as well as radiographers have relentlessly put their best foot forward in serving the people. Till date there are relatively few articles which describe the A-to-Z role of radiology in COVID pandemic and what a radiologist must know, suggest and report in such times. This article is a comprehensive narrative Review article with pictorial illustrations of cases from GSL medical college and hospital (COVID care centre)in India, intending to prepare and equip radiologist/resident, with the knowledge of basics to fight respiratory pandemics like COVID-19, in the present and any future respiratory pandemic. This article aims to bring under one roof comprehensively all the precious studies by various researchers all over the world, by covering all areas, seeing no leaf unturned by covering Pearls and Pitfalls of various imaging modalities, Imaging in Special groups of population, differential diagnoses of COVID, Role of radiology in non-respiratory manifestations, Post-COVID/ sequelae.

Keywords: COVID-19, CT, X-ray, imaging, post-COVID, CORADS, CT-severity index.

Graphical Abstract
WHO Director-General's opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19-11. 2020. Available from:
Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet 2020; 395(10223): 497-506.
[] [PMID: 31986264]
Gane SB, Kelly C, Hopkins C. Isolated sudden onset anosmia in COVID-19 infection. A novel syndrome? Rhinology 2020; 58(3): 299-301.
[] [PMID: 32240279]
Fang Y, Zhang H, Xie J, Lin M, Ying L, Pang P. Sensitivity of chest CT for COVID-19: Comparison to RT-PCR. Radiology 2020; 296(2): E115-7.
Ai T, Yang Z, Hou H, Zhan C, Chen C, Lv W. Correlation of chest CT and RT-PCR testing in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China: A report of 1014 cases. Radiology 2020; 296(2): E32-40.
ACR recommendations for the use of chest radiography and Computed Tomography (CT) for suspected COVID-19 infection. American College of Radiology 2020. Available from:
Litmanovich DE, Michael C, Kirkbride RR, Kicska G, Kanne JP. Review of chest radiograph findings of COVID-19 pneumonia and suggested reporting language. J Thorac Imaging 2020; 35(6): 354-60.
Zhou Z, Guo D, Li C, et al. Coronavirus disease 2019: Initial chest CT findings. Eur Radiol 2020; 30(8): 4398-406.
[] [PMID: 32211963]
Use of chest imaging in COVID-19: A rapid advice guide. Geneva: World Health Organization 2020. (WHO/2019-nCoV/Clinical/Radiology_ imaging/2020.1).
Misbah D, Haq I, Kalsoom U, Yousaf A. Chest X-rays findings in COVID-19 patients at a University Teaching Hospital - A descriptive study. Pak J Med Sci 2020; 36(Suppl 4): S22-6.
Shuvro H, Choudhury R, Shahi PK, Sharma S, Dhar R. Utility of chest radiography on admission for initial triaging of COVID-19 in symptomatic patients. ERJ Open Res 2020; 6: 00357-2020.
Mohakud S, Ranjan A, Naik S, Deep N. COVID-19 preparedness for portable x-rays in an Indian hospital - Safety of the radiographers, the frontline warriors. Radiography 2020; 26(3): 270-1.
[] [PMID: 32327384]
Wasilewski PG, Mruk B, Mazur S, Półtorak-Szymczak G, Sklinda K, Walecki J. COVID-19 severity scoring systems in radiological imaging - a review. Pol J Radiol 2020; 85: e361-8.
Wong HYF, Lam HYS, Fong AHT, et al. Frequency and distribution of chest radiographic findings in patients positive for COVID-19. Radiology 2020; 296(2): E72-8.
[] [PMID: 32216717]
Taylor E, Haven K, Reed P, et al. A chest radiograph scoring system in patients with severe acute respiratory infection: A validation study. BMC Med Imaging 2015; 15: 61.
[] [PMID: 26714630]
Borghesi A, Maroldi R. COVID-19 outbreak in Italy: Experimental chest X-ray scoring system for quantifying and monitoring disease progression. Radiol Med 2020; 125(5): 509-13.
Penha D, Pinto EG, Matos F, et al. CO-RADS: Coronavirus classification review. J Clin Imaging Sci 2021; 11: 9.
[] [PMID: 33767901]
Francone M, Iafrate F, Masci GM, et al. Chest CT score in COVID-19 patients: correlation with disease severity and short-term prognosis. Eur Radiol 2020; 30(12): 6808-17.
[] [PMID: 32623505]
Cavagna E, Muratore F, Ferrari F. Pulmonary thromboembolism in COVID-19: venous thromboembolism or arterial thrombosis? Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging 2020; 2(4): e200289.
[] [PMID: 33778609]
Kwee TC, Kwee RM. Chest CT in COVID-19: what the radiologist needs to know. Radiographics 2020; 40(7): 1848-65.
[] [PMID: 33095680]
Yu M, Xu D, Lan L, et al. Thin-section chest CT imaging of COVID-19 pneumonia: a comparison between patients with mild and severe disease. Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging 2020; 2(2): e200126.
[] [PMID: 33778568]
Adams HJA, Kwee TC, Yakar D, Hope MD, Kwee RM. Chest CT imaging signature of coronavirus disease 2019 infection: in pursuit of the scientific evidence. Chest 2020; 158(5): 1885-95.
Lang M, Som A, Carey D, et al. Pulmonary vascular manifestations of COVID-19 pneumonia. Radiol Cardiothorac Imag 2020; 2: 3.
Pan F, Ye T, Sun P, et al. Time course of lung changes at chest CT during recovery from Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Radiology 2020; 295(3): 715-21.
[] [PMID: 32053470]
Prokop M, van Everdingen W, van Rees Vellinga T, et al. CO-RADS: A categorical CT assessment scheme for patients suspected of having COVID-19-definition and evaluation. Radiology 2020; 296(2): E97-E104.
[] [PMID: 32339082]
Dhoot Nilu Malpani, Goenka Usha, Ghosh Somali, et al. Assigning computed tomography involvement score in COVID-19 patients: prognosis prediction and impact on management. BJR Open 2020; 2: 1.
Li K, Wu J, Wu F, et al. The clinical and chest CT features associated with severe and critical COVID-19 pneumonia. Invest Radiol 2020; 55(6): 327-31.
[] [PMID: 32118615]
Buda N, Segura-Grau E, Cylwik J, Wełnicki M. Lung ultrasound in the diagnosis of COVID-19 infection - a case series and review of the literature. Adv Med Sci 2020; 65(2): 378-85.
[] [PMID: 32659729]
Vasilev YA, Sergunova KA, Bazhin AV, et al. Chest MRI of patients with COVID-19. Magn Reson Imaging 2021; 79: 13-9.
[] [PMID: 33727149]
Steinberger S, Lin B, Bernheim A, et al. CT features of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in 30 pediatric patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2020; 215(6): 1303-11.
[] [PMID: 32442030]
Wang J, Zhu X, Xu Z, et al. Clinical and CT findings of COVID-19: Differences among three age groups. BMC Infect Dis 2020; 20(1): 434.
[] [PMID: 32571228]
Katal S, Aghaghazvini L, Gholamrezanezhad A. Chest-CT findings of COVID-19 in patients with pre-existing malignancies; a pictorial review. Clin Imaging 2020; 67: 121-9.
[] [PMID: 32619773]
McGuinness G, Zhan C, Rosenberg N, et al. Increased incidence of barotrauma in patients with COVID-19 on invasive mechanical ventilation. Radiology 2020; 297(2): E252-62.
[] [PMID: 32614258]
Hani C, Trieu NH, Saab I, et al. COVID-19 pneumonia: a review of typical CT findings and differential diagnosis. Diagn Interv Imaging 2020; 101(5): 263-8.
Kuhlman JE, Kavuru M, Fishman EK, Siegelman SS. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: spectrum of parenchymal CT findings. Radiology 1990; 175(3): 711-4.
[] [PMID: 2343118]
Chen X, Zhang G, Hao SY, Bai L, Lu JJ. Similarities and differences of early pulmonary CT features of pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV: Comparison based on a systemic review. Chin Med Sci J 2020; 35(3): 254-61.
[] [PMID: 32972503]
Zahid MJ, Baig A, Galvez-Jimenez N, Martinez N. Hemorrhagic stroke in setting of severe COVID-19 infection requiring Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO). J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2020; 29(9): 105016.
[] [PMID: 32807431]
Bansal M. Cardiovascular disease and COVID-19. Diabetes Metab Syndr 2020; 14(3): 247-50.
[] [PMID: 32247212]
Vadukul P, Sharma DS, Vincent P. Massive pulmonary embolism following recovery from COVID-19 infection: inflammation, thrombosis and the role of extended thromboprophylaxis. BMJ Case Rep 2020; 13(9): e238168.
[] [PMID: 32928824]
Chen C, Zhou Y, Wang DW. SARS-CoV-2: A potential novel etiology of fulminant myocarditis. Herz 2020; 45(3): 230-2.
[] [PMID: 32140732]
Davoodi L, Jafarpour H, Taghavi M, Razavi A. COVID-19 presented with deep vein thrombosis: an unusual presenting. J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep 2020; 8: 2324709620931239.
[] [PMID: 32493073]
Baghbanian SM, Namazi F. Post COVID-19 longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM)-a case report. Acta Neurol Belg 2020; 1-2
[] [PMID: 32948995]
Chakraborty U, Chandra A, Ray AK, Biswas P. COVID-19-associated acute transverse myelitis: A rare entity. BMJ Case Rep 2020; 13(8): e238668.
AlKetbi R, AlNuaimi D, AlMulla M, et al. Acute myelitis as a neurological complication of Covid-19: a case report and MRI findings. Radiol Case Rep 2020; 15(9): 1591-5.
Caress JB, Castoro RJ, Simmons Z, et al. COVID-19-associated Guillain-Barré syndrome: the early pandemic experience. Muscle Nerve 2020; 62(4): 485-91.
[] [PMID: 32678460]
Kamal YM, Abdelmajid Y, Al Madani AAR. Cerebrospinal fluid confirmed COVID-19-associated encephalitis treated successfully. BMJ Case Rep 2020; 13(9): e237378.
[] [PMID: 32938656]
Kumaran NK, Karmakar BK, Taylor OM. Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) associated with Acute Necrotising Pancreatitis (ANP). BMJ Case Rep 2020; 13(9): e237903.
[] [PMID: 32900752]
Aloysius MM, Thatti A, Gupta A, Sharma N, Bansal P, Goyal H. COVID-19 presenting as acute pancreatitis. Pancreatology 2020; 20(5): 1026-7.
[] [PMID: 32444169]
Besutti G, Bonacini R, Iotti V, et al. Abdominal visceral infarction in 3 patients with COVID-19. Emerg Infect Dis 2020; 26(8): 1926-8.
[] [PMID: 32396504]
Singh AK, Singh R, Joshi SR, Misra A. Mucormycosis in COVID-19: a systematic review of cases reported worldwide and in India. Diabetes Metab Syndr 2021; 15(4): 102146.
Maini A, Tomar G, Khanna D, Kini Y, Mehta H, Bhagyasree V. Sino-orbital mucormycosis in a COVID-19 patient: a case report. Int J Surg Case Rep 2021; 82: 105957.
[] [PMID: 33964720]
Selvaraj V, Dapaah-Afriyie K. Lung cavitation due to COVID-19 pneumonia. BMJ Case Rep 2020; 13(7): e237245.
[] [PMID: 32636231]

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2023 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy