Background: In the last century, nutritional supplements have shown a wide spectrum of biochemical effects, most notably immunomodulation and countering inflammation.
Objective: This study investigates the impact of phytochemical compounds that are present in different quantities of pomegranate, grape seed, and garlic extracts on the expression of inflammatory (IL1β and IL6) and anti-inflammatory (IL10) genes, and the effects of polymorphisms on these genes.
Methods: Human peripheral blood leukocyte cultures were treated with pomegranate (1.2% or 2.4%), garlic (0.5% or 1.2%), or grape seed (1.2% or 2.4%) extracts. Gene expression was assessed using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Polymorphisms of the cytokine genes were analyzed using allele-specific PCR.
Results: Pomegranate extract (2.4%) reduced the transcription of IL1β by 16-fold compared to the reference group. The expression of IL6 regarding the reference group after the grape seed extract (1.2%) treatment was reduced by 100-fold. The grape seed extract (1.2%) showed the effect of increasing transcription for IL10 compared to the reference group. The level of IL1β transcription in culture with garlic extract depends on the genotype of the cell for -31T>C polymorphism (r = 0.67 p = 0.03). There is a (positive/negative) correlation between polymorphism -174G>C and level gene expression IL6 (r=-0.66, p = 0.04) after adding grape seed extract.
Conclusion: The phytochemical compounds in pomegranate extracts and grape seed extracts-cause the anti-inflammatory effect by decreasing the gene expression of IL1β,IL6 and increasing the transcription of IL10.