MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs ranging from 18-24 nucleotides, also known to regulate the human genome mainly at the post-transcriptional level. MiRNAs were shown to play an important role in most biological processes such as apoptosis and in the pathogenesis of many diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Recent developments of advanced molecular high-throughput technologies have enhanced our knowledge of miRNAs. MiRNAs can now be discovered, interrogated, and quantified in various body fluids serving as diagnostic and therapeutic markers for many diseases.
While most studies use blood as a sample source to measure circulating miRNAs as possible biomarkers for disease pathogenesis, fewer studies have assessed the role of salivary miRNAs in health and disease. This review aims at providing an overview of the current knowledge of the salivary miRNome, addressing the technical aspects of saliva sampling, and highlighting the applicability of miRNA screening to clinical practice.
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