In recent years, polymeric materials with the ability to self-assemble into micelles have been increasingly investigated for application in various fields, mainly in biomedicine. Micellar morphology is interesting in the field of drug transport and delivery since micelles can encapsulate hydrophobic molecules in their nucleus, have active molecules in their outer layer, and due to their nanometric size, can take advantage of the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, prolong the time in circulation and avoid renal clearance. In addition, nanobioactive molecules (joined in covalent form or by host-host interaction), such as drugs, bioimaging molecules, targeting ligands, “crosslinkable” molecules or bonds, sensitive to internal or external stimuli, can be incorporated into them and showed better activity as anticancer agents, siRNA delivery agents as well as antiviral and antiparasitic compounds.
The present work is a review of the information published, which is the most important about the synthesis and biological importance of the confined multivalent cooperation and the ability to modify the dendritic structure, provide the versatility to create and improve the amphiphiles used in the micellar supramolecular field. The most studied structures are the hybrid copolymers formed by the combination of linear polymers and dendrons. However, small dendritic molecules that do not involve linear polymers have also been developed, such as Janus dendrimers, facial dendrons, and dendritic amphiphiles with only one dendron. Amphiphilic dendrimer micelles have achieved efficient and promising results, both in in vitro and in vivo tests, which encourage their research for future application in nanotherapies.
Keywords: Anticancer activity, amphiphilic, dendrimers, dendrons, micelles, nanostructures, supramolecular structures.