Generic placeholder image

Current Radiopharmaceuticals

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1874-4710
ISSN (Online): 1874-4729

Review Article

Mayapuri Radiological Catastrophe: Good Practices and the Lessons Learnt

Author(s): Sandeep Sharma , Rakesh Kumar Sharma* and Rajesh Kumar Singh

Volume 15, Issue 1, 2022

Published on: 18 January, 2021

Page: [21 - 31] Pages: 11

DOI: 10.2174/1874471014666210118123424

Price: $65

Abstract

Background: Advances in the peaceful applications of ionizing radiation have brought in its wake the inevitable concern about radioactivity. Almost a decade ago, an infamous unprecedented radiological exposure incident occurred in Delhi, which has not only some positive aspects for imbibing good practices to emulate but also lessons learnt to further improvise the overall management, respectively.

Objective: The Mayapuri incident at Delhi exposed the lack of awareness and laxity on the part of University of Delhi authorities in disposing of the Cobalt Irradiator, and the further insecure handling of the orphan radioactive source. Since an occurrence like this was unparalleled, it was necessary to flag all interlinked issues and put in place a technology management system that should address them.

Methods: The methodology includes an in-depth discussion about the good practices and lessons learnt of the then-existing techno-legal systems and the response mechanism to the Mayapuri radiological incident from various departments of repute, both governmental as well as non-governmental.

Result and Conclusion: The present article attempts to intensify pragmatic approaches to proactively avert and thwart ‘orphan source’ incidents like the Mayapuri radiological incident, so that threat to the society is minimal, and putting in place enhanced medical preparedness measures for the management of radiation casualties caused by ignorance, negligence, incompetence, accident, or malicious intention.

Keywords: Atomic energy regulatory board, Cobalt-60, gamma irradiator, orphan source, mayapuri, radiation, radioactivity.

Graphical Abstract
[1]
Sharma, S.; Jain, S.; Baldi, A.; Singh, R.K.; Sharma, R.K. Intricacies in the approval of radiopharmaceuticals - regulatory perspectives and the way forward. Curr. Sci., 2019, 116(1), 47-55.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.18520/cs/v116/i1/47-55]
[2]
Robert Johnston, Wm. Database of Radiological Incidents and Related Events, 2014.www.johnstonsarchive.net/nuclear/radevents/index.html
[3]
Portal, C.B.R.N.E. Radiological and Nuclear Incidents – the IAEA database., 2020.http://www.cbrneportal.com/radiological-and-nuclear-incidents-the-iaea-database/
[4]
Laka. Documentation and Research Centre on Nuclear Energy., 2020.https://www.laka.org/docu/ines/location/
[5]
The Hindu. Cobalt-60 source of radiation in west Delhi., 2010.
[6]
Bagla, P. Lab safety. Radiation accident a ‘wake-up call’ for India’s scientific community. Science, 2010, 328(5979), 679.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.328.5979.679-a] [PMID: 20448162]
[7]
Makkar, N.; Chandra, T.; Agrawal, P.; Bansal, H.; Singh, S.; Anand, T.; Gupta, M.K.; Kumar, R. Evaluating awareness and practices pertaining to radioactive waste management among scrap dealers in Delhi, India. PLoS One, 2014, 9(3), e91579.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091579] [PMID: 24622341]
[8]
Kumar, R.; Panda, G.K.; Singh, B.K.; Rane, D.M.; Kumar, J.V.K.S.; Sonawane, A.U. Lessons learned from the radiological accident in Mayapuri; New Delhi; Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, 2015, pp. 27-31.
[9]
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention., https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/radiation/emergencies/isotopes/cobalt.htm
[10]
Gupta, M.L.; Srivastava, N.N.; Dutta, S.; Shukla, S.K.; Dutta, A.; Verma, S.; Devi, M. Blood biomarkers in metal scrap workers accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation: a case study. Hum. Exp. Toxicol., 2013, 32(12), 1311-1322.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0960327113482477] [PMID: 23698832]
[11]
Newsletter, A.E.R.B. Government of India., 2010, 23(1), 9-11.https://aerb.gov.in/images/PDF/Vol23-1.pdf
[12]
Act, A.E. Atomic Energy Act, Act 33 of 1962. 1962.https://aerb.gov.in/images/PDF/Atomic-Energy-Act-1962.pdf
[13]
AERB, G.S.R. 125. Atomic Energy (Safe Disposal of Radioactive Wastes) Rules., 1987.https://aerb.gov.in/images/PDF/AE(SDRW)Rules%201987.pdf
[14]
Atomic Energy (Radiation Protection) Rules,Part-II, Section 3, Sub-Section (I), 2004.https://aerb.gov.in/images/PDF/RPR2004-with-corrigendum.pdf
[15]
The Environment Protection Act, 1986.http://legislative.gov.in/sites/default/files/A1986-29.pdf
[17]
eLORA System, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Government of India, https://elora.aerb.gov.in/ELORA/populateLoginAction.htm
[18]
Mishra, S. Radiation Safety: How Prepared Are We? National Defence and Aerospace Power; Centre for Air Power Studies, 2010, pp. 1-4.
[19]
CAG Report 2012. Comptroller and Auditor General of India, Activities of Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Report No. 9, 2012.https://cag.gov.in/sites/default/files/audit_report_files/Union_Performance_Atomic_Energy_Regulatory_Board_Union_Government_Atomic_Energy_Department_9_2012.pdf
[20]
National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA). Management of Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies, https://nidm.gov.in/pdf/guidelines/new/managementofnuclearradiologicalemergencies.pdf
[21]
National Disaster Management Authority. Draft NDMA Guidelines on Medical Management of Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies, 2010.https://ndma.gov.in/images/pdf/Draft-Guidelines-June2018.pdf
[22]
Remesh, B.P.; Vinod, C.P. Radiation Incident in Mayapuri: Disquieting Signals to Labour. Econ. Polit. Wkly., 2010, 45(30), 16-18.
[23]
National Disaster Management Authority, Annual Report 2010-2011, 2020.https://ndma.gov.in/images/annreport/ANNUAL%20REPORT%202010-2011%20ENGLISH.pdf
[24]
Times of India. Radiation response team recovers all Cobalt-60 source from Mayapuri., 2010.
[25]
Sabha, L. 2010, Radioactive Materials., http://www.dae.gov.in/writereaddata/lssq404_250810.pdf
[26]
Webb, G.A.M.; Anderson, R.W.; Gaffney, M.J.S. Classification of events with an off-site radiological impact at the Sellafield site between 1950 and 2000, using the International Nuclear Event Scale. J. Radiol. Prot., 2006, 26(1), 33-49.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0952-4746/26/1/002] [PMID: 16522943]
[28]
Hindustan Times. All Cobalt 60 pencils recovered., 2010.
[29]
Times of India. Six DU profs charged for Mayapuri radiation leak., 2011.
[30]
The Telegraph Online. Hunt for radioactive metal., 2003.
[31]
Greenpeace. An Unusual Occurrence?Radiation Safety in India, 2020.http://re.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/files/An_unusual_occurence-1.pdf
[32]
The Hindu. Lessons from Mayapuri., 2010.
[33]
Sabha, Rajya Radiation Leakage in Mayapuri. Unstarred Question No: 3686, 2010.
[34]
[35]
Times of India. Another dealer down with radiation exposure Clueless docs sought source., 2010.
[36]
The Indian Express. Surgeries on Mayapuri radiation victims feature in global journal., 2013.
[37]
Times of India. Operated 11 times, but no relief for trader., 2011.
[38]
Desoukya, O.; Ding, N.; Zhou, G. Targeted and non-targeted effects of ionizing radiation. J Radiat. Res Appl Sc., 2015, 8(2), 247-254.
[39]
Hamada, N.; Fujimichi, Y. Classification of radiation effects for dose limitation purposes: history, current situation and future prospects. J. Radiat. Res. (Tokyo), 2014, 55(4), 629-640.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jrr/rru019] [PMID: 24794798]
[40]
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. A Brochure for Physicians Acute Radiation Syndrome, 2020.https://emergency.cdc.gov/radiation/pdf/ars.pdf
[41]
Dey, A.B.; Mohanan, S.; Damodaran, D.; Soneja, M.; Jain, N.; Mohan, A.; Vikram, N.K.; Sood, R. Radiation accident at Mayapuri scrap market, Delhi, 2010. Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry, 2012, 151(4), 645-651.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncs162] [PMID: 22914329]
[42]
Environmental Protection Agency. Facts about Cobalt-60, 2020.https://semspub.epa.gov/work/HQ/174482.pdf
[43]
The Tribune. Delhi radiation exposure claims life., 2010.
[44]
Singh, S.R.; Krishna, K.; Behera, T.; Millo, T.; Bhardwaj, D.N.; Swain, R. Fatal radiation exposure due to careless disposal of cobalt-60 from a university lab. J Indian Acad Forensic Med Appl Toxicol., 2013, 35, 281-284.
[45]
Singh, V.K.; Newman, V.L.; Seed, T.M. Colony-stimulating factors for the treatment of the hematopoietic component of the acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS): a review. Cytokine, 2015, 71(1), 22-37.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2014.08.003] [PMID: 25215458]
[46]
Times of India. Radiation leak: Origin of Cobalt-60 traced to Delhi University., 2010.
[47]
International Atomic Energy Agency. Loss and subsequent recovery of a radiography device containing source., 2020.https://www-news.iaea.org/ErfView.aspx?mId=0c07439a-2b52-4ff7-a204-f98273f8357a
[48]
Sharma, D.C. Delhi radiation leak exposes lax safety procedures. Lancet Oncol., 2010, 11(6), 518-520.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(10)70138-8] [PMID: 20527669]
[49]
Sen, A.D. The curious case of Cobalt-60., 2010,
[50]
Chhabra, V. Undeclared disaster: Radiation episode in New Delhi - Medical overview and hard lessons to learn! J. Pharm. Bioallied Sci., 2010, 2(3), 159-160.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0975-7406.68495] [PMID: 21829310]
[51]
Rakshak, Bharat Consortium of Indian Defence, Root Cause Analysis (RCA) of Co-60 in Delhi Scrap Iron shop., https://forums.bharat-rakshak.com/viewtopic.php?t=5494&start=80
[52]
Herald, Deccan Radiation levels down but not normal in Mayapuri: Greenpeace., 2010.
[53]
The Hindu. 5 years hence, no mechanism to check radiation at Mayapuri., 2015.
[54]
Sharma, R.K. DRDO’s endeavours for CBRN challenges in homeland security; Defence and Security Alert, 2013, pp. 69-73.
[55]
Alexander, D.A.; Klein, S. The challenge of preparation for a chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear terrorist attack. J. Postgrad. Med., 2006, 52(2), 126-131.
[PMID: 16679677]
[56]
Chilcott, R.P. Managing mass casualties and decontamination. Environ. Int., 2014, 72, 37-45.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2014.02.006] [PMID: 24684820]
[57]
Ellis, P.D. Lone Wolf Terrorism and Weapons of Mass Destruction: An Examination of Capabilities and Countermeasures. Terrorism Polit. Violence, 2014, 26, 211-225.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09546553.2014.849935]
[58]
Sharma, R.K. Radiological Terrorism. Defence and Security Alert, 2010, 1, 72-84.
[59]
Newsletter, A.E.R.B. Government of India., 2010, 23(2) https://www.aerb.gov.in/images/PDF/Vol23-2
[60]
Newsletter, B.A.R.C. Special Issue, 2012.http://www.barc.gov.in/publications/nl/2012/spe2012.pdf
[62]
[63]
Sharma, M. Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear training issues in India: A fresh perspective. J. Pharm. Bioallied Sci., 2010, 2(3), 275-280.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0975-7406.68510] [PMID: 21829323]

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2023 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy