Generic placeholder image

Current Nutraceuticals

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 2665-9786
ISSN (Online): 2665-9794

Research Article

Upcycling Culinary Organic Waste: Production of Plant Particles from Potato and Carrot Peels to Improve Antioxidative Capacity

Author(s): Dalia A. Yassin, Muhammad Jawad Nasim, Abraham M. Abraham, Cornelia M. Keck* and Claus Jacob*

Volume 2, Issue 1, 2021

Published on: 25 September, 2020

Page: [62 - 70] Pages: 9

DOI: 10.2174/2665978601999200925163905

Abstract

Background: Vegetables and fruits are consumed in considerable amounts worldwide producing huge quantities of organic leftovers comprising primarily of peels. Peels of potatoes (PP) and carrots (CP), for instance, are often considered as waste, albeit they still represent a rich source of interesting phytochemicals. Traditional waste management of such materials, usually vermicomposting, therefore represents a low-value approach and also a considerable burden to the environment.

Objective: Aiming to convert some of this waste into raw materials for further applications, methods were explored to prepare suspensions of PP and CP. Antioxidant activities of these suspensions were compared to bulk-suspensions and the corresponding ethanolic extracts in anticipation of possible applications in Nutrition and Cosmetics.

Methods: The peels of potatoes and carrots were subjected to high- speed stirring (HSS) and highpressure homogenization (HPH) to produce suspensions which were characterized for size distribution by Laser Diffraction (LD), Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS), and light microscopy (LM). Ethanolic extracts of peels were also produced. Samples were evaluated for antioxidant activity employing 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay.

Results: HPH produced suspensions of peels comprising particles with diameters in the range of 268 - 335 nm for PP and 654 - 1,560 nm for CP. These suspensions exhibited a significantly stronger antioxidant activity compared to the bulk-suspensions. Moreover, the suspension of PP (1% w/w) exhibited comparable antioxidant activity to the ethanolic extract (1% w/w) whilst the CP suspension (1% w/w) exhibited lower activity compared to the ethanolic extract.

Conclusion: Production of suspensions of vegetable peels may unlock some biological potential which could be optimised for applications in Nutrition, Agriculture, Medicine and Cosmetics.

Keywords: Antioxidants, carrots, extracts, homogenization, suspensions, potatoes, up-cycling.

Graphical Abstract
[1]
Kumar, J.S.; Subbaiah, K.V.; Rao, P.V. Vermi composting--organic waste management and disposal. J. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2012, 54(1), 134-139.
[PMID: 23741869]
[2]
Mattiello, A.; Chiodini, P.; Bianco, E.; Forgione, N.; Flammia, I.; Gallo, C.; Pizzuti, R.; Panico, S. Health effects associated with the disposal of solid waste in landfills and incinerators in populations living in surrounding areas: a systematic review. Int. J. Public Health, 2013, 58(5), 725-735.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00038-013-0496-8] [PMID: 23887611]
[3]
Hungría, J.; Siles, J.A.; Chica, A.F.; Gil, A.; Martín, M.A. Anaerobic co-digestion of winery waste: comparative assessment of grape marc waste and lees derived from organic crops. Environ. Technol., 2020, 1-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2020.1737735] [PMID: 32114938]
[4]
Lee, E.; Oliveira, D.S.B.L.; Oliveira, L.S.B.L.; Jimenez, E.; Kim, Y.; Wang, M.; Ergas, S.J.; Zhang, Q. Comparative environmental and economic life cycle assessment of high solids anaerobic co-digestion for biosolids and organic waste management. Water Res., 2020, 171115443
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2019.115443] [PMID: 31945640]
[5]
Rocamora, I.; Wagland, S.T.; Villa, R.; Simpson, E.W.; Fernández, O.; Bajón-Fernández, Y. Dry anaerobic digestion of organic waste: A review of operational parameters and their impact on process performance. Bioresour. Technol., 2020, 299122681
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2019.122681] [PMID: 31902638]
[6]
Wainaina, S.; Awasthi, M.K.; Sarsaiya, S.; Chen, H.; Singh, E.; Kumar, A.; Ravindran, B.; Awasthi, S.K.; Liu, T.; Duan, Y.; Kumar, S.; Zhang, Z.; Taherzadeh, M.J. Resource recovery and circular economy from organic solid waste using aerobic and anaerobic digestion technologies. Bioresour. Technol., 2020, 301122778
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.122778] [PMID: 31983580]
[7]
Pérez Pastor, R.; Salvador, P.; García Alonso, S.; Alastuey, A.; García Dos Santos, S.; Querol, X.; Artíñano, B. Characterization of organic aerosol at a rural site influenced by olive waste biomass burning. Chemosphere, 2020, 248125896
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.125896] [PMID: 32006840]
[8]
Zhang, T.; Fiedler, H.; Yu, G.; Ochoa, G.S.; Carroll, W.F., Jr; Gullett, B.K.; Marklund, S.; Touati, A. Emissions of unintentional persistent organic pollutants from open burning of municipal solid waste from developing countries. Chemosphere, 2011, 84(7), 994-1001.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.04.070] [PMID: 21624634]
[9]
Déportes, I.; Benoit-Guyod, J.L.; Zmirou, D. Hazard to man and the environment posed by the use of urban waste compost: a review. Sci. Total Environ., 1995, 172(2-3), 197-22.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(95)04808-1] [PMID: 8525355]
[10]
Angelino, D.; Gennari, L.; Blasa, M.; Selvaggini, R.; Urbani, S.; Esposto, S.; Servili, M.; Ninfali, P. Chemical and cellular antioxidant activity of phytochemicals purified from olive mill waste waters. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2011, 59(5), 2011-2018.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf103881b] [PMID: 21314125]
[11]
Salvador, A.C.; Simões, M.M.Q.; Silva, A.M.S.; Santos, S.A.O.; Rocha, S.M.; Silvestre, A.J.D. Vine waste valorisation: Integrated approach for the prospection of bioactive lipophilic phytochemicals. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 2019, 20(17), 4239.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20174239] [PMID: 31480214]
[12]
Wagd, S.; Yannick, N.; Muhammad Jawad, N.; Torsten, B.; Peter, M.; Claus, J. Turning apparent waste into new value: Up-cycling strategies exemplified by Brewer’s spent grains (BSG). Curr. Nutraceut., 2020, 1, 1-8.
[13]
Dhurat, R.; Chitallia, J.; May, T.W.; Jayaraaman, A.M.; Madhukara, J.; Anandan, S.; Vaidya, P.; Klenk, A. An open-label randomized multicenter study assessing the noninferiority of a caffeine-based topical liquid 0.2% versus minoxidil 5% solution in male androgenetic alopecia. Skin Pharmacol. Physiol., 2017, 30(6), 298-305.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000481141] [PMID: 29055953]
[14]
da Silva Lima, R.; Nunes, I.L.; Block, J.M. Ultrasound-assisted extraction for the recovery of carotenoids from Guava’s pulp and waste powders. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr., 2020, 75(1), 63-69.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11130-019-00784-0] [PMID: 31838615]
[15]
Karaoglu, O.; Alpdogan, G.; Zor, S.D.; Bildirir, H.; Ertas, E. Efficient solid phase extraction of α-tocopherol and β-sitosterol from sunflower oil waste by improving the mesoporosity of the zeolitic adsorbent. Food Chem., 2020, 311125890
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125890] [PMID: 31757493]
[16]
Pavlović, N.; Jokić, S.; Jakovljević, M.; Blažić, M.; Molnar, M. Green extraction methods for active compounds from food waste-cocoa bean shell. Foods, 2020, 9(2), 9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9020140] [PMID: 32019261]
[17]
Sengar, A.S.; Rawson, A.; Muthiah, M.; Kalakandan, S.K. Comparison of different ultrasound assisted extraction techniques for pectin from tomato processing waste. Ultrason. Sonochem., 2020, 61104812
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2019.104812] [PMID: 31704498]
[18]
Baysal, T.; Ersus, S.; Starmans, D.A. Supercritical CO(2) extraction of beta-carotene and lycopene from tomato paste waste. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2000, 48(11), 5507-5511.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf000311t] [PMID: 11087510]
[19]
de Andrade Lima, M.; Kestekoglou, I.; Charalampopoulos, D.; Chatzifragkou, A. Supercritical fluid extraction of carotenoids from vegetable waste matrices. Molecules, 2019, 24(3), 24.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24030466] [PMID: 30696092]
[20]
Fu, H.; Matthews, M.A. Comparison between supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and aqueous surfactant washing of an oily machining waste. J. Hazard. Mater., 1999, 67(2), 197-213.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3894(99)00037-0] [PMID: 10341302]
[21]
Lazzè, M.C.; Pizzala, R.; Gutiérrez Pecharromán, F.J.; Gatòn Garnica, P.; Antolín Rodríguez, J.M.; Fabris, N.; Bianchi, L. Grape waste extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction contains bioactive antioxidant molecules and induces antiproliferative effects in human colon adenocarcinoma cells. J. Med. Food, 2009, 12(3), 561-568.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2008.0150] [PMID: 19627204]
[22]
Leazer, J.L., Jr; Gant, S.; Houck, A.; Leonard, W.; Welch, C.J. Removal of common organic solvents from aqueous waste streams via supercritical C02 extraction: A potential green approach to sustainable waste management in the pharmaceutical industry. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2009, 43(6), 2018-2021.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es802607a] [PMID: 19368207]
[23]
Zhang, Y.J.; Gan, R.Y.; Li, S.; Zhou, Y.; Li, A.N.; Xu, D.P.; Li, H.B. Antioxidant Phytochemicals for the Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Diseases. Molecules, 2015, 20(12), 21138-21156.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules201219753] [PMID: 26633317]
[24]
Forni, C.; Facchiano, F.; Bartoli, M.; Pieretti, S.; Facchiano, A.; D’Arcangelo, D.; Norelli, S.; Valle, G.; Nisini, R.; Beninati, S.; Tabolacci, C.; Jadeja, R.N. Beneficial role of phytochemicals on oxidative stress and age-related diseases. BioMed Res. Int., 2019.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/8748253]
[25]
Schieber, M.; Chandel, N.S. ROS function in redox signaling and oxidative stress. Curr. Biol., 2014, 24(10), R453-R462.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2014.03.034] [PMID: 24845678]
[26]
Pisoschi, A.M.; Pop, A. The role of antioxidants in the chemistry of oxidative stress: A review. Eur. J. Med. Chem., 2015, 97, 55-74.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2015.04.040] [PMID: 25942353]
[27]
Pavlović, I.; Khateb, S.; Milisav, I.; Mahajna, J. Nutraceuticals for promoting longevity. Curr. Nutr., 2020, 1, 1-18.
[28]
Sharma, K.D.; Karki, S.; Thakur, N.S.; Attri, S. Chemical composition, functional properties and processing of carrot-a review. J. Food Sci. Technol., 2012, 49(1), 22-32.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0310-7] [PMID: 23572822]
[29]
Montilla, E.C.; Arzaba, M.R.; Hillebrand, S.; Winterhalter, P. Anthocyanin composition of black carrot (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) cultivars Antonina, Beta Sweet, Deep Purple, and Purple Haze. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2011, 59(7), 3385-3390.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf104724k] [PMID: 21381748]
[30]
Bolton-Smith, C.; McMurdo, M.E.; Paterson, C.R.; Mole, P.A.; Harvey, J.M.; Fenton, S.T.; Prynne, C.J.; Mishra, G.D.; Shearer, M.J. Two-year randomized controlled trial of vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) and vitamin D3 plus calcium on the bone health of older women. J. Bone Miner. Res., 2007, 22(4), 509-519.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1359/jbmr.070116] [PMID: 17243866]
[31]
Liang, N.; Kitts, D.D. Role of Chlorogenic Acids in Controlling Oxidative and Inflammatory Stress Conditions. Nutrients, 2015, 8(1), 8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu8010016] [PMID: 26712785]
[32]
Priedniece, V.; Spalvins, K.; Ivanovs, K.; Pubule, J.; Blumberga, D. Bioproducts from potatoes. A review. Environ. Clim. Technol., 2017, 21, 18-27.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/rtuect-2017-0013]
[33]
Schieber, A.; Saldaña, M.D.A. Potato peels: A source of nutritionally and pharmacologically interesting compounds - A review. Food, 2009, 3, 23-29.
[34]
Griffin, S.; Tittikpina, N.K.; Al-Marby, A.; Alkhayer, R.; Denezhkin, P.; Witek, K.; Gbogbo, K.A.; Batawila, K.; Duval, R.E.; Nasim, M.J.; Awadh-Ali, N.A.; Kirsch, G.; Chaimbault, P.; Schäfer, K.H.; Keck, C.M.; Handzlik, J.; Jacob, C. Turning waste into value: Nanosized natural plant materials of solanum incanum l. and pterocarpus erinaceus poir with promising antimicrobial activities. Pharmaceutics, 2016, 8(2), 8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics8020011] [PMID: 27104554]
[35]
Griffin, S.; Alkhayer, R.; Mirzoyan, S.; Turabyan, A.; Zucca, P.; Sarfraz, M.; Nasim, M.J.; Trchounian, A.; Rescigno, A.; Keck, C.M.; Jacob, C. Nanosizing cynomorium: Thumbs up for potential antifungal applications. inventions, 2017, 2, 24.,
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/inventions2030024]
[36]
Griffin, S.; Sarfraz, M.; Farida, V.; Nasim, M.J.; Ebokaiwe, A.P.; Keck, C.M.; Jacob, C. No time to waste organic waste: Nanosizing converts remains of food processing into refined materials. J. Environ. Manage., 2018, 210, 114-121.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.12.084] [PMID: 29331852]
[37]
Magwaza, L.S.; Opara, U.L.; Cronje, P.J.; Landahl, S.; Ortiz, J.O.; Terry, L.A. Rapid methods for extracting and quantifying phenolic compounds in citrus rinds. Food Sci. Nutr., 2015, 4(1), 4-10.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.210] [PMID: 26788305]
[38]
Sabeena Farvin, K.H.; Grejsen, H.D.; Jacobsen, C. Potato peel extract as a natural antioxidant in chilled storage of minced horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus): Effect on lipid and protein oxidation. Food Chem., 2012, 131, 843-851.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.09.056]
[39]
Sharma, O.P.; Bhat, T.K. DPPH antioxidant assay revisited. Food Chem., 2009, 113, 1202-1205.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.08.008]
[40]
Bandoniene, D.; Murkovic, M.; Pfannhauser, W.; Venskutonis, P.R.; Gruzdiene, D. Detection and activity evaluation of radical scavenging compounds by using DPPH free radical and on-line HPLC-DPPH methods. Eur. Food Res. Technol., 2002, 214, 143-147.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00217-001-0430-9]
[41]
Vaso, M.; Ali, W.; Masood, M.I.; Nasim, M.J.; Lilischkis, R.; Schäfer, K-H.; Schneider, M.; Papajani, V.T. Jacob. C. Nanosizing Nigella: A cool alternative to liberate biological activity; Current Nutraceuticlas, 2020. [Epub Ahead of Print.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/2665978601999200930143010]
[42]
Griffin, S.; Sarfraz, M.; Hartmann, S.F.; Pinnapireddy, S.R.; Nasim, M.J.; Bakowsky, U.; Keck, C.M.; Jacob, C. Resuspendable powders of lyophilized chalcogen particles with activity against microorganisms. Antioxidants, 2018, 7(2), 7.,
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox7020023] [PMID: 29382037]

© 2022 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy