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Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1871-5206
ISSN (Online): 1875-5992

Research Article

The Anti-Breast Cancer Effects of Green-Synthesized Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Using Carob Extracts

Author(s): Vahid Pouresmaeil*, Shaghayegh Haghighi, Asieh S. Raeisalsadati, Ali Neamati and Masoud Homayouni-Tabrizi

Volume 21 , Issue 3 , 2021

Published on: 21 July, 2020

Page: [316 - 326] Pages: 11

DOI: 10.2174/1871520620666200721132522

Price: $65

Abstract

Background: The use of nanoparticles synthesized by the green method to treat cancer is fairly recent. The aim of this study was to evaluate cytotoxicity, apoptotic and anti-angiogenic effects and the expression of involved genes, of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) synthesized with Carob extracts on different human breast cancer cell lines.

Methods: ZnO-NPs were synthesized using the extracts of Carob and characterized with various analytical techniques. The MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 cells were treated at different times and concentrations of ZnO-NPs. The cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and anti-angiogenic effects were examined using a series of cellular assays. Expression of apoptotic genes (Bax and Bcl2) and anti-angiogenic genes, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and its Receptor (VEGF-R) in cancer cells treated with ZnO-NPs were examined with Reverse Transcriptionquantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR). The anti-oxidant activities of ZnO-NPs were evaluated by ABTS and DPPH assay.

Results: Exposure of cells to ZnO-NPs resulted in a dose-dependent loss of cell viability. The IC50 values at 24, 48, and 72 hours were 125, 62.5, and 31.2μg/ml, respectively (p<0.001). ZnO-NPs treated cells showed, in fluorescent microscopy, that ZnO-NPs are able to upregulate apoptosis and RT-qPCR revealed the upregulation of Bax (p<0.001) and downregulation of Bcl-2 (p<0.05). ZnO-NPs increased VEGF gene expression while decreasing VEGF-R (p<0.001). The anti-oxidant effects of ZnO-NPs were higher than the control group and were dose-dependent (p<0.001).

Conclusion: ZnO-NPs synthetized using Carob extract have the ability to eliminate breast cancer cells and inhibit angiogenesis, therefore, they could be used as an anticancer agent.

Keywords: Zinc oxide nanoparticle, breast cancer, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, anti-angiogenic effect, anti-oxidant effect.

Graphical Abstract
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