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Mini-Reviews in Organic Chemistry

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1570-193X
ISSN (Online): 1875-6298

Mini-Review Article

Synthesis, Chemical Reactivities, and Biological Properties of Pyrazolone/ Pyrazolinone as a Blocking Unit for Building Various Heterobicyclic Systems: A Review

Author(s): Abdulrahman S. Alharbi*, Reda M. Abdel-Rahman, Nawaa A. Alshammari and Khaled M. El-Avia

Volume 18, Issue 2, 2021

Published on: 11 May, 2020

Page: [221 - 236] Pages: 16

DOI: 10.2174/1570193X17999200511132328

Price: $65

Abstract

This review reports various synthetic routes of pyrazolone/ pyrazolinone derivatives via the addition of cycloaddition, condensation, cyclocondensation, modification, alkylation, as well as formylation, regioselective, and ring-opening reactions under reflux, microwave irradiation, and/ or ultrasonication conditions. It also presents critical chemical behaviors towards nucleophilic and electrophilic reagents. The chemical reactivities of pyrazolone/ pyrazolinone derivatives involve alkylation, acylation, condensation, catalyzed diazo coupling, oxidation, heteroarylation, phosphorylation, stereoselective alkenylation, enantioselective alkylation, addition, and complexation reactions. The review also summarizes the significant biological activity of pyrazolone/ pyrazolinone derivatives as antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antitumor, anthelmintic, analgesic, as well as antioxidant, anthelmintic, antibiofilm, and anti-HIV. Moreover, some pyrazolone/ pyrazolinone derivatives used to remove various metal or soft metal ions from the wastewater. Besides, they exhibited stable complexes with some metals, for example, Ag (I), Cu (I), Cu (II), Hg (II), Pb (II), Sn (II), and Sb (V) as new materials, catalysis, and precursors for CVD in the microelectronic industry and as potential antitumoral.

Keywords: Antipyrine, biological activities, chemical reactivity, edaravone, polyfunctional pyrazolones, synthesis.

Graphical Abstract
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