Generic placeholder image

Current Drug Discovery Technologies


ISSN (Print): 1570-1638
ISSN (Online): 1875-6220

Review Article

Punica granatum as a Source of Natural Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agent: A Comprehensive Review on Related Investigations

Author(s): Atefeh Jalali, Mohammadreza Kiafar, Masih Seddigh and Mohammad M. Zarshenas*

Volume 18 , Issue 2 , 2021

Published on: 29 April, 2020

Page: [207 - 224] Pages: 18

DOI: 10.2174/1570163817666200430001822

Price: $65


Background: The consumption of natural antioxidants is increasing due to the demand and tendency to natural foods. Punica granatum L. [Punicaceae] is a fruit with various bioactive ingredients. The effectiveness of this plant has been proved against various disorders such as hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, blood coagulation, infections, cancer, and dentistry. Among them, there are numerous researches on antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Subsequently, the present study aimed to compile a review of those properties to outline this herb as a possible natural antioxidant and preservative.

Methods: Synchronically, keywords "Punica granatum" with antimicrobial, or antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant and radical scavenging were searched through "Scopus" database up to 31st September 2019. Papers focusing on agriculture, genetics, chemistry, and environmental sciences were excluded, and also related papers were collected.

Results: Among 201 papers focusing on related activities, 111 papers have dealt with antioxidant activities focusing based on DPPH assay, 59 with antibacterial, on both gram+ and gram- bacteria, 24 with antifungal effects, mostly on Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans, and 7 papers with antiviral activities. There were about 50 papers focusing on in-vivo antioxidant activities of this plant.

Conclusion: Taken together, botanical parts of P. granatum have possessed notable radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities that, with these properties, this plant can be introduced as a natural, safe source of preservative and antioxidant. Accordingly, P. granatum can be applied as excipient with the aforementioned properties in the pharmaceutical and food industries.

Keywords: Antioxidant, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, preservative, Punica granatum.

Graphical Abstract
Moure A, Cruz JM, Franco D, et al. Natural antioxidants from residual sources. Food Chem 2001; 72(2): 145-71.
Zhang Y-J, Gan R-Y, Li S, et al. Antioxidant phytochemicals for the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. Molecules 2015; 20(12): 21138-56.
[] [PMID: 26633317]
Montville TJ, Matthews KR. Food microbiology: an introduction. ASM press 2007.
Shahbazi Y. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of Methanolic Extracts of Apple (Malus pumila), Grape (Vitis vinifera), Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) and Common Fig (Ficus carica L.) Fruits. Pharm Sci 2017; 23(4): 308-15.
Eman HM, Ebeid H, Hanan MA-S, Elbehairy S. Biological evaluation of natural antioxidants from residual sources. W J Dairy & Food Sci 2012; 7(2): 174-80.
Moein MR, Zomorodian K, Pakshir K, Yavari F, Motamedi M, Zarshenas MM. Trachyspermum ammi (L.) sprague: chemical composition of essential oil and antimicrobial activities of respective fractions. J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med 2015; 20(1): 50-6.
[] [PMID: 25305209]
Elfalleh W, Tlili N, Nasri N, et al. Antioxidant capacities of phenolic compounds and tocopherols from Tunisian pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruits. J Food Sci 2011; 76(5): C707-13.
[] [PMID: 22417416]
Lansky E, Shubert S, Neeman I. Pharmacological and therapeutic properties of pomegranate. Symposium on production, processing and marketing of pomegranate in the Mediterranean region: advances in research and technology Séminaires Méditerranéens (CIHEAM).
Sedigh-Rahimabadi M, Fani M, Rostami-Chijan M, Zarshenas MM, Shams M. A traditional mouthwash (Punica granatum var pleniflora) for controlling gingivitis of diabetic patients: a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial. J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med 2017; 22(1): 59-67.
[] [PMID: 26922436]
Wang R, Ding Y, Liu R, Xiang L, Du L. Pomegranate: constituents, bioactivities and pharmacokinetics. Fruit. Vegetable Cereal Sci Biotechnol 2010; 4(2): 77-87.
Zeghad N, Ahmed E, Belkhiri A, Heyden YV, Demeyer K. Antioxidant activity of Vitis vinifera, Punica granatum, Citrus aurantium and Opuntia ficus indica fruits cultivated in Algeria. Heliyon 2019; 5(4)e01575
[] [PMID: 31183435]
Kaur P. Robin, Mehta RG, Singh B, Arora S. Development of aqueous-based multi-herbal combination using principal component analysis and its functional significance in HepG2 cells. BMC Complement Altern Med 2019; 19(1): 18.
[] [PMID: 30646883]
Merzouk H, Bedja B, Benmeziane B, Touati N, Chibane M. Effect of pomegranate peel extract on candida albicans growth and biofilm formation. Phytotherapie 2019; 17(3): 120-8.
Kazemirad H, Kazerani HR. Nitric oxide plays a pivotal role in cardioprotection induced by pomegranate juice against myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. Phytother Res 2018; 32(10): 2069-77.
[] [PMID: 29998575]
Gubitosa J, Rizzi V, Lopedota A, et al. One pot environmental friendly synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Punica Granatum Juice: A novel antioxidant agent for future dermatological and cosmetic applications. J Colloid Interface Sci 2018; 521: 50-61.
[] [PMID: 29549765]
Mestry SN, Gawali NB, Gursahani MS, Pai SA, Dhodi JB, Juvekar AR. Inhibition of advanced glycation end products by Punica granatum Linn. leaves and its antioxidant activity. Orient Pharm Exp Med 2018; 18(2): 97-105.
Chaudhari Pankaj M, Baviskar Dheeraj T, Mahajan Sachin N. Antihypertensive effect of the punica Granatum juice in deoxycorticosterone acetate–salt model of hypertension in rats. Asian J Pharma Clin Res 2018; 11(6): 498-504.
Bassiri-Jahromi S, Pourshafie MR, Mirabzade Ardakani E, et al. In vivo comparative evaluation of the pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extract as an alternative agent to nystatin against oral candidiasis. Iran J Med Sci 2018; 43(3): 296-304.
[PMID: 29892147]
Sreedevi P, Vijayalakshmi K. Determination of antioxidant capacity and gallic acid content in ethanolic extract of Punica granatum L. Leaf. Asian J Pharma Clin Res 2018; 11(4): 319-23.
Jacob J, Lakshmanapermalsamy P, Illuri R, Bhosle D, Sangli GK, Mundkinajeddu D. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant potential of isolated compounds and various extracts of peel of Punica granatum L. Pharmacognosy Res 2018; 10(1): 44-8.
[PMID: 29568186]
Cetin D, Kilicle PA, Guvendi GF, Yayla M. Hepatoprotective effect of punica granatum seed oil extract on paracetamol intoxication in rat via inhibory effect of CYP2E1. Kafkas Univ Vet Fak Derg 2018; 24(5)
Annu Ahmed S, Kaur G, Sharma P, Singh S, Ikram S. Evaluation of the antioxidant, antibacterial and anticancer (lung cancer cell line A549) activity of Punica granatum mediated silver nanoparticles. Toxicol Res (Camb) 2018; 7(5): 923-30.
[] [PMID: 30310669]
Mestry SN, Gawali NB, Pai SA, et al. Punica granatum improves renal function in gentamicin-induced nephropathy in rats via attenuation of oxidative stress. J Ayurveda Integr Med 2018; S0975-9476(17): 30323-6.
[] [PMID: 29555255]
Alkathiri B, El-Khadragy MF, Metwally DM, Al-Olayan EM, Bakhrebah MA, Abdel Moneim AE. Pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice shows antioxidant activity against cutaneous leishmaniasis-induced oxidative stress in female BALB/c mice. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017; 14(12): 1592.
[] [PMID: 29258248]
Mestry SN, Juvekar AR. Aldose reductase inhibitory potential and anti-cataract activity of Punica granatum Linn. leaves against glucose-induced cataractogenesis in goat eye lens. Orient Pharm Exp Med 2017; 17(3): 277-84.
Mestry SN, Dhodi JB, Kumbhar SB, Juvekar AR. Attenuation of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by Punica granatum Linn. leaves extract. J Tradit Complement Med 2016; 7(3): 273-80.
[] [PMID: 28725620]
Doostan F, Vafafar R, Zakeri-Milani P, Pouri A, Amini Afshar R, Mesgari Abbasi M. Effects of pomegranate (punica granatum L.) seed and peel methanolic extracts on oxidative stress and lipid profile changes induced by methotrexate in rats. Adv Pharm Bull 2017; 7(2): 269-74.
[] [PMID: 28761829]
Shishavan NG, Abbasi MM, Afshar RA, Milani PZ, Yahyavi F. The effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel methanolic extract on methotrexate induced changes in hepatic antioxidant enzymes of rats. Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod 2017; 12(1)
Delgado NT, Rouver WD, Freitas-Lima LC, et al. Pomegranate extract enhances endothelium-dependent coronary relaxation in isolated perfused hearts from spontaneously hypertensive ovariectomized rats. Front Pharmacol 2017; 7: 522.
[] [PMID: 28101057]
Al-Sabahi BN, Fatope MO, Essa MM, et al. Pomegranate seed oil: Effect on 3-nitropropionic acid-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells and elucidation of unsaturated fatty acids composition. Nutr Neurosci 2017; 20(1): 40-8.
[] [PMID: 25238165]
Mossalem HS, Ghareeb MA, Refahy LA, Mohamed AS, Habib MR. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and antioxidant activity of Punica granatum L. peels and its role as immunostimulant against Schistosoma mansoni infection in Biomphalaria alexandrina GAS 2017; 10(1)
Riaz A, Khan RA, Afroz S, Mallick N. Prophylactic and therapeutic effect of Punica granatum in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid induced inflammation in rats. Pak J Pharm Sci 2017; 30(1): 155-62.
[PMID: 28603126]
Moreira H, Slezak A, Szyjka A, Oszmianski J, Gasiorowski K. Antioxidant and cancer chemopreventive activities of cistus and pomegranate polyphenolS. Acta Pol Pharm 2017; 74(2): 688-98.
[PMID: 29624275]
Moradi MT, Karimi A, Lorigooini Z, Pourgheysar B, Alidadi S, Hashemi L. In vitro anti influenza virus activity, antioxidant potential and total phenolic content of twelve Iranian medicinal plants. Marmara Pharm J 2017; 21(4): 843-51.
Vinodhini S, Shri Preethi M, Nusrath Fathima N, Kushwaha SS, Devi Rajeswari V. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of Punica granatum leaf extracts. Asian J Pharma Clin Res 2016; 9(6): 140-6.
Galiano F, Figoli A, Conidi C, et al. Functional properties of punica granatum L. juice clarified by hollow fiber membranes. Processes (Basel) 2016; 4(3)
Barathikannan K, Venkatadri B, Khusro A, et al. Chemical analysis of Punica granatum fruit peel and its in vitro and in vivo biological properties. BMC Complement Altern Med 2016; 16(1): 264.
[] [PMID: 27476116]
Mubaraki MA, Hafiz TA, Dkhil MA, Al-Quraishy S. Beneficial effect of Punica granatum peel extract on murine malaria-induced spleen injury. BMC Complement Altern Med 2016; 16(1): 221.
[] [PMID: 27422638]
Prakash DP, Dhondibhau DK. Study of in-vitro anti-cancer and anti-oxidative properties of aqueous extract of Punica granatum flowers. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2016; 38(1): 271-5.
Durgawale PP, Datkhile KD. Study of in-vitro anti-cancer and anti-oxidative properties of methanolic extract of Punica granatum flowers. Der Pharmacia Lettre 2016; 8(11): 197-201.
Mohammed IAS, Hassanien FR, El Sahy KM, Afify SAM, Abdeldaiem MHM. Keeping quality of beef sausage using ethanolic extract of gamma-irradiated pomegranate peel powder. Acta Period Technol 2016; 47: 29-50.
Baccarin T, Mitjans M, Lemos-Senna E, Vinardell MP. Protection against oxidative damage in human erythrocytes and preliminary photosafety assessment of Punica granatum seed oil nanoemulsions entrapping polyphenol-rich ethyl acetate fraction. Toxicol In Vitro 2015; 30(1 Pt B): 421-8.
[] [PMID: 26407526]
Ekhlasi G, Shidfar F, Agah S, Merat S, Hosseini AF. Effects of pomegranate and orange juice on antioxidant status in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients: A randomized clinical trial. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2015; 85(5-6): 292-8.
[] [PMID: 27414418]
Karodi R, Mahendrakumar CB, Bhise K. Formulation and evaluation of hydroalcoholic extract of Berberis aristata DC. and Punica granatum Linn. for anti-acne action. Res J Pharm Technol 2015; 8(11): 1548-54.
Marchi LB, Monteiro ARG, Mikcha JMG, et al. Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial capacity of pomegranate peel extract (Punica Granatuml.) under different drying temperatures. Chem Eng Trans 2015; 44: 121-6.
Nalini R, Anuradha R. Phytochemical screening and “in-vitro” antioxidant activity of ethanolic flower extracts of punica granatum. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2015; 30(1): 353-60.
Saad EA, Hassanien MM, El-Hagrasy MA, Radwan KH. Antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities and protective effects of Punica Granatum peels powder against pancreatic and hepatic tissues injuries in streptozotocin induced iddm in rats. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015; 7(7): 397-402.
Mahajan DC, Satyapal US, Tatke PA, Naharwar VA. Evaluation of punica granatum fruit peels extracts for its free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activity. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015; 7(7): 222-5.
Hamza RZ, Abd El-Azez AM, Hussien NA. Evaluation of the antioxidant potential for different extracts of Al-taif pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) induced by atrazine and malathion pesticides in liver of male albino mice. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015; 7(1): 89-94.
Setiawan F, Ketut Adnyana I, Sukandar EY. Sukrasno, Yuniarto A, Pebritrinasari R. Pharmacological screening for potency of antiobesity on five plants based on ethnopharmacological use. Asian J Pharma Clin Res 2015; 8(4): 299-301.
Belkacem N, Djaziri R, Lahfa F, El-Haci IA, Boucherit Z. Phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant activity of various Punica granatum l. Peel extracts from Algeria: A comparative study. Phytotherapie 2014; 12(6): 372-9.
Al-Olayan EM, El-Khadragy MF, Metwally DM, Abdel Moneim AE. Protective effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice on testes against carbon tetrachloride intoxication in rats. BMC Complement Altern Med 2014; 14: 164.
[] [PMID: 24884677]
Shaban NZ, El-Kersh MAR, Bader-Eldin MM, Kato SA, Hamoda AF. Effect of Punica granatum (pomegranate) juice extract on healthy liver and hepatotoxicity induced by diethylnitrosamine and phenobarbital in male rats. J Med Food 2014; 17(3): 339-49.
[] [PMID: 24650251]
Yildiz H, Sengul M, Cetin B, et al. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) sour sauce extracts. Dokl Bulg Akad Nauk 2014; 67(1): 145-56.
Lairini S, Bouslamti R, Zerrouq F, Farah A. Enhancement of the aqueous extract of the bark of Punica granatum fruit through the study of its antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. J Mater Environ Sci 2014; 5: 2314-8.
Zargar M, Pourahmad J. Protective effect of Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) fruit extracts and ellagic acid against cytotoxicity induced by methyl tertiary butyl ether in isolated rat hepatocytes. Toxicol Environ Chem 2014; 96(1): 150-61.
Banerjee A, De B. Antioxidant activity of ethnomedicinally used flowers of West Bengal, India. Int J Pharmacog Phytochem Res 2014; 6(3): 622-35.
Patel AN, Bandawane DD, Mhetre NK. Pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn.) leaves attenuate disturbed glucose homeostasis and hyperglycemia mediated hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Eur J Integr Med 2014; 6(3): 307-21.
Ali SI, El-Baz FK, El-Emary GAE, Khan EA, Mohamed AA. HPLC-analysis of polyphenolic compounds and free radical scavenging activity of pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum L.). Int J Pharmacog Phytochem Res 2014; 6(4): 348-55.
Yaidikar L, Byna B, Thakur SR. Neuroprotective effect of punicalagin against cerebral ischemia reperfusion-induced oxidative brain injury in rats. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2014; 23(10): 2869-78.
[] [PMID: 25282190]
Pirinççioğlu M, Kızıl G, Kızıl M, Kanay Z, Ketani A. The protective role of pomegranate juice against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress in rats. Toxicol Ind Health 2014; 30(10): 910-8.
[] [PMID: 23160382]
Jain V, Pareek A, Bhardwaj YR, Singh N. Attenuating effect of standardized fruit extract of Punica granatum L in rat model of tibial and sural nerve transection induced neuropathic pain. BMC Complement Altern Med 2013; 13: 274.
[] [PMID: 24499201]
Kumar EK, Putta S, Sastry NY, Kaladhar DSVG, Rao GD. In-vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of aqueous pericarp extract of punica granatum. J Appl Pharm Sci 2013; 3(8): 107-12.
Suneesh K, Augusti KT. Antiatherogenic and cardioprotective effects of flavanoids from pomegranate in isoprenaline induced toxicity in rats. Int J Pharm Technol 2013; 5(2): 5418-33.
Bekir J, Mars M, Vicendo P, Fterrich A, Bouajila J. Chemical composition and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferation activities of pomegranate (Punica granatum) flowers. J Med Food 2013; 16(6): 544-50.
[] [PMID: 23767863]
Sumathy R, Sankaranarayanan S, Bama P, Ramachandran J, Vijayalakshmi M, Deecaraman M. Antioxidant and antihemolytic activity of flavanoid extract from fruit peel of Punica Granatum. Asian J Pharma Clin Res 2013; 6(Suppl. 2): 208-11.
Prakash A, Mathur K, Vishwakarma A, Suneetha V, Mishra B. Comparative assay of antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Indian culinary seasonal fruit peel extracts obtained from Vellore, Tamilnadu. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2013; 19(1): 131-5.
Patil US, Bandawane DD, Bibave KH, Chaudhari PD. Antihyperglycemic and in vitro antioxidant activities of Punica Granatum Lin. in aloxan induced diabetic rats. Indian Drugs 2013; 50(2): 39-46.
Jesy Vathsala A, Justin Packia Jacob S, Ebenezer T, Livingstone C. Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities in foliar tissue of selected medicinal plants. Int J Pharm Tech Res 2013; 5(1): 1-6.
Qabaha KI. Antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities of five Palestinian medicinal plants. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2013; 10(4): 101-8.
[] [PMID: 24146509]
Jamshidzadeh A, Abbasian M, Mehrabadi AR, Niknahad H. Hepatoprotective effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit juice and seed extracts against CCL 4 -induced toxicity. Indian J Pharm Sci 2012; 8(3): 181-8.
Hiraganahalli BD, Chinampudur VC, Dethe S, et al. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of standardized herbal extracts. Pharmacogn Mag 2012; 8(30): 116-23.
[] [PMID: 22701284]
Hassan NA, El-Halwagi AA, Sayed HA. Phytochemicals, antioxidant and chemical properties of 32 pomegranate accessions growing in Egypt. World Appl Sci J 2012; 16(8): 1065-73.
Mahmoud AE, Ali MM. Attenuation the side effects of adriamycin- induced cardiotoxicity and nephro-toxicity in rats by fermented punica granatum (pomegranate) peel extract. Int J Res in Pharm Sci 2012; 3(1): 29-37.
Karasu C, Cumaoğlu A, Gürpinar AR, et al. Aldose reductase inhibitory activity and antioxidant capacity of pomegranate extracts. Interdiscip Toxicol 2012; 5(1): 15-20.
[] [PMID: 22783144]
Gill NS, Dhawan S, Jain A, Arora R, Bali M. Antioxidant and anti-ulcerogenic activity of wild punica granatum ethanolic seed extract. Res J Med Plant 2012; 6(1): 47-55.
Naz S, Siddiqi R, Saeed SMG, Sayeed SA. Antioxidant activity directed isolations from Punica granatum. Pak J Sci Ind Res 2012; 55(1): 14-20.
Kaur CD, Saraf S. Development of photoprotective creams with antioxidant polyphenolic herbal extracts. Res J Med Plant 2012; 6(1): 83-91.
Dikmen M, Ozturk N, Ozturk Y. The antioxidant potency of Punica granatum L. Fruit peel reduces cell proliferation and induces apoptosis on breast cancer. J Med Food 2011; 14(12): 1638-46.
[] [PMID: 21861726]
Cambay Z, Baydas G, Tuzcu M, Bal R. Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) flower improves learning and memory performances impaired by diabetes mellitus in rats. Acta Physiol Hung 2011; 98(4): 409-20.
[] [PMID: 22173022]
Shams Ardekani MR, Hajimahmoodi M, Oveisi MR, et al. Comparative antioxidant activity and total flavonoid content of Persian pomegranate (Punica granatum l.) cultivars. Iran J Pharm Res 2011; 10(3): 519-24.
[PMID: 24250384]
Bhutkar MA, Bhise SB. Comparative studies on antioxidant activity of some antidiabetic plants. Res J Pharm Technol 2011; 4(9): 1409-12.
Rajan S, Mahalakshmi S, Deepa V, Sathya K, Shajitha S, Thirunalasundari T. Antioxidant potentials of Punica granatum fruit rind extracts. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2011; 3(3): 82-8.
Choi SJ, Lee JH, Heo HJ, et al. Punica granatum protects against oxidative stress in PC12 cells and oxidative stress-induced Alzheimer’s symptoms in mice. J Med Food 2011; 14(7-8): 695-701.
[] [PMID: 21631359]
Waghulde H, Kamble S, Patankar P, Jaiswal B, Pattanayak S, Bhagat C, et al. Antioxidant activity, phenol and flavonoid contents of seeds of Punica granatum (Punicaceae) and Solanum torvum (Solanaceae). Pharmacologyonline 2011; 1: 193-202.
Tjakradidjaja FA, Tjakradidjaja AS. Pomegranate (Punica granatum L) powder reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) level in cigarette smoke exposed rats. Med J Indones 2011; 20(1): 34-9.
Iqbal B, Saeed MK, Khalid B, Liaquat L, Ahmad I. Nutritional value and antioxidant activity of various extracts and fractions of Punica granatum (pomegranate) peel. Pak J Sci Ind Res 2010; 53(6): 330-3.
Kokila NR, Chethan Kumar M, Gangadhara NS, Harsha R, Dinesha R, Thammanna Gowda SS. Antiglycation and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides isolated from fruit extract of pomegra ate (Punica Granatum). Pharmacologyonline 2010; 1: 821-9.
Bouroshaki MT, Sadeghnia HR, Banihasan M, Yavari S. Protective effect of pomegranate seed oil on hexachlorobutadiene-induced nephrotoxicity in rat kidneys. Ren Fail 2010; 32(5): 612-7.
[] [PMID: 20486845]
Mohan M, Patankar P, Ghadi P, Kasture S. Cardioprotective potential of Punica granatum extract in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats. J Pharmacol Pharmacother 2010; 1(1): 32-7.
[] [PMID: 21808588]
Hasan R, Hossain M, Akter R, Jamila M, Mazumder MEH, Islam I, et al. Antioxidant, antidiarrhoeal and cytotoxic properties of Punica granatum Linn. Lat Am J Pharm 2009; 28(5): 783-8.
Toklu HZ, Şehirli O, Özyurt H, et al. Punica granatum peel extract protects against ionizing radiation-induced enteritis and leukocyte apoptosis in rats. J Radiat Res (Tokyo) 2009; 50(4): 345-53.
[] [PMID: 19478462]
Singh K, Jaggi AS, Singh N. Exploring the ameliorative potential of Punica granatum in dextran sulfate sodium induced ulcerative colitis in mice. Phytother Res 2009; 23(11): 1565-74.
[] [PMID: 19367659]
Thring TSA, Hili P, Naughton DP. Anti-collagenase, anti-elastase and anti-oxidant activities of extracts from 21 plants. BMC Complement Altern Med 2009; 9: 27.
[] [PMID: 19653897]
DiSilvestro RA, DiSilvestro DJ, DiSilvestro DJ. Pomegranate extract mouth rinsing effects on saliva measures relevant to gingivitis risk. Phytother Res 2009; 23(8): 1123-7.
[] [PMID: 19170139]
Kumar S, Maheshwari KK, Singh V. Protective effects of Punica granatum seeds extract against aging and scopolamine induced cognitive impairments in mice. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2008; 6(1): 49-56.
[PMID: 20162041]
Wakade AS, Shah AS, Kulkarni MP, Juvekar AR. Protective effect of Punica granatum L. against experimental myocardial oxidative stress induced injury in rats. Indian Drugs 2009; 46(1): 58-64.
Nishigaki I, Rajendran P, Venugopal R, Ekambaram G, Sakthisekaran D, Nishigaki Y. Effect of extract of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) on glycated protein-iron chelate-induced toxicity: An in vitro study on human umbilical-vein endothelial cells. J Health Sci 2008; 54(4): 441-9.
Türk G, Sönmez M, Aydin M, et al. Effects of pomegranate juice consumption on sperm quality, spermatogenic cell density, antioxidant activity and testosterone level in male rats. Clin Nutr 2008; 27(2): 289-96.
[] [PMID: 18222572]
Rout S, Banerjee R. Free radical scavenging, anti-glycation and tyrosinase inhibition properties of a polysaccharide fraction isolated from the rind from Punica granatum. Bioresour Technol 2007; 98(16): 3159-63.
[] [PMID: 17140791]
Toklu HZ, Dumlu MU, Sehirli O, et al. Pomegranate peel extract prevents liver fibrosis in biliary-obstructed rats. J Pharm Pharmacol 2007; 59(9): 1287-95.
[] [PMID: 17939210]
Sestili P, Martinelli C, Ricci D, et al. Cytoprotective effect of preparations from various parts of Punica granatum L. fruits in oxidatively injured mammalian cells in comparison with their antioxidant capacity in cell free systems. Pharmacol Res 2007; 56(1): 18-26.
[] [PMID: 17376699]
Wang R, Wei W, Wang L, Liu R, Yi Ding, Du L. Constituents of the flowers of Punica granatum. Fitoterapia 2006; 77(7-8): 534-7.
[] [PMID: 16887296]
Li YF, Guo CJ, Yang JJ, Wei JY, Xu J, Cheng S. Comparison of the protective effects on vascular endothelial cells in oxidative stress between extracts from pomegranate peel and pulp. Zhongguo Linchuang Kangfu 2006; 10(33): 81-4.
Ricci D, Giamperi L, Bucchini A, Fraternale D. Antioxidant activity of Punica granatum fruits. Fitoterapia 2006; 77(4): 310-2.
[] [PMID: 16698192]
Rathod PI, D’Mello PM. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of anthocyanins. Indian Drugs 2006; 43(8): 660-4.
Ajaikumar KB, Asheef M, Babu BH, Padikkala J. The inhibition of gastric mucosal injury by Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) methanolic extract. J Ethnopharmacol 2005; 96(1-2): 171-6.
[] [PMID: 15588667]
Sudheesh S, Vijayalakshmi NR. Flavonoids from Punica granatum--potential antiperoxidative agents. Fitoterapia 2005; 76(2): 181-6.
[] [PMID: 15752628]
Schubert SY, Lansky EP, Neeman I. Antioxidant and eicosanoid enzyme inhibition properties of pomegranate seed oil and fermented juice flavonoids. J Ethnopharmacol 1999; 66(1): 11-7.
[] [PMID: 10432202]
Phimnuan P, Yakaew S, Yosboonruang A, Luangbudnak W, Grandmottet F, Viyoch J. Development of anti-acne film from bio-cellulose incorporating punica granatum peel extract. Walailak J Sci Technol 2019; 16(10): 765-78.
Gubitosa J, Rizzi V, Fini P, et al. Multifunctional green synthetized gold nanoparticles/chitosan/ellagic acid self-assembly: Antioxidant, sun filter and tyrosinase-inhibitor properties. Mater Sci Eng C 2020.106110170
[] [PMID: 31753365]
Li Y, Ooi LSM, Wang H, But PPH, Ooi VEC. Antiviral activities of medicinal herbs traditionally used in southern mainland China. Phytother Res 2004; 18(9): 718-22.
[] [PMID: 15478204]
Yousef OM, El-Raey M, El Sanousi AA, Shalaby MA. In vitro primary evaluation of antiviral activity of crude extract of Quercus ilex L. Against Amantadine resistant Orthomyxo virus. Int J Virol 2014; 10(1): 17-27.
Reddy BU, Mullick R, Kumar A, Sudha G, Srinivasan N, Das S. Small molecule inhibitors of HCV replication from pomegranate. Sci Rep 2014; 4: 5411.
[] [PMID: 24958333]
Lantzouraki DZ, Sinanoglou VJ, Zoumpoulakis PG, Glamočlija J, Ćirić A, Soković M, et al. Antiradical-antimicrobial activity and phenolic profile of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juices from different cultivars: A comparative study. RSC Advances 2015; 5(4): 2602-14.
Moradi MT, Karimi A, Alidadi S, Hashemi L. In vitro anti-herpes simplex virus activity, antioxidant potential and total phenolic compounds of selected iranian medicinal plant extracts. Indian J Tradit Knowl 2018; 17(2): 255-62.
Arunkumar J, Rajarajan S. Study on antiviral activities, drug-likeness and molecular docking of bioactive compounds of Punica granatum L. to Herpes simplex virus - 2 (HSV-2). Microb Pathog 2018; 118: 301-9.
[] [PMID: 29604421]
Angamuthu D, Purushothaman I, Kothandan S, Swaminathan R. Antiviral study on Punica granatum L., Momordica charantia L., Andrographis paniculata Nees, and Melia azedarach L., to Human Herpes Virus-3. Eur J Integr Med 2019; 28: 98-108.
Wissam Z, Ghada B, Wassim A, Warid K. Effective extraction of polyphenols and proanthocyanidins from Pomegranate’s peel. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012; 4(Suppl. 3): 675-82.
Abdel Moneim AE, El-Khadragy MF. The potential effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice on carbon tetrachloride-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. J Physiol Biochem 2013; 69(3): 359-70.
[] [PMID: 23132170]
Manukumar HM, Thribhuvan KR. In-vitro evaluation of physicochemical, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice and seed hydro extracts. Int J Pharma Bio Sci 2014; 5(1): 131-P41.
Satheesh Kumar Bhandary B, Sharmila KP, Suchetha Kumari N, Bhat VS, Ganesh S. Ameliorative activity of Punica granatum extracts and ellagic acid against radiation induced biochemical changes in swiss albino mice. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2014; 5(2): 1097-107.
Rengarajan S, Melanathuru V, Munuswamy D. Comparative studies of antioxidant activity from the petals of selected Indian medicinal plants. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015; 7(6): 29-34.
Bharani RSA, Namasivayam SKR. Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Peel extract- A study on potential source of pharmacological activities. Int J Pharma Bio Sci 2016; 7(4): B282-90.
Pal J, Raju CV, Lakshmisha IP, Pandey G, Raj R, Singh RR. Antioxidant activity of pomegranate peel extract and its effect on storage stability of cooked meat model system of Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) stored at 4±2°C. Biochem Cell Arch 2017; 17(1): 183-7.
Yang F, Ding S, Liu W, et al. Antifungal activity of 40 TCMs used individually and in combination for treatment of superficial fungal infections. J Ethnopharmacol 2015; 163: 88-93.
[] [PMID: 25625353]
Mansourian A, Boojarpour N, Ashnagar S, Momen Beitollahi J, Shamshiri AR. The comparative study of antifungal activity of Syzygium aromaticum, Punica granatum and nystatin on Candida albicans; an in vitro study. J Mycol Med 2014; 24(4): e163-8.
[] [PMID: 25442923]
Lakshminarayanashastry Viswanatha G, Venkatanarasappa Venkataranganna M, Lingeswara Prasad NB. Methanolic leaf extract of Punica granatum attenuates ischemia-reperfusion brain injury in Wistar rats: Potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Iran J Basic Med Sci 2019; 22(2): 187-96.
[PMID: 30834085]
Amir M, Ahmad N, Sarfaroz M, Ahmad W, Ahmad S, Mujeeb M. Pharmacognostical, physicochemical standardization and in vitro antioxidant activity of Punica granatum linn fruit. Pharmacogn J 2019; 11(2): 272-7.
Anesini C, Perez C. Screening of plants used in Argentine folk medicine for antimicrobial activity. J Ethnopharmacol 1993; 39(2): 119-28.
[] [PMID: 8412245]
Navarro V, Villarreal ML, Rojas G, Lozoya X. Antimicrobial evaluation of some plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 1996; 53(3): 143-7.
[] [PMID: 8887021]
Pérez C, Anesini C. In vitro antibacterial activity of Argentine folk medicinal plants against Salmonella typhi. J Ethnopharmacol 1994; 44(1): 41-6.
[] [PMID: 7990503]
Nascimento GGF, Locatelli J, Freitas PC, Silva GL. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals on antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Braz J Microbiol 2000; 31(4): 247-56.
Holetz FB, Pessini GL, Sanches NR, Cortez DAG, Nakamura CV, Filho BP. Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2002; 97(7): 1027-31.
[] [PMID: 12471432]
Machado TB, Pinto AV, Pinto MCFR, et al. In vitro activity of Brazilian medicinal plants, naturally occurring naphthoquinones and their analogues, against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2003; 21(3): 279-84.
[] [PMID: 12636992]
Voravuthikunchai S, Lortheeranuwat A, Jeeju W, Sririrak T, Phongpaichit S, Supawita T. Effective medicinal plants against enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7. J Ethnopharmacol 2004; 94(1): 49-54.
[] [PMID: 15261962]
Thilagavathi G, Rajendrakumar K, Rajendran R. Development of ecofriendly antimicrobial textile finishes using herbs. Indian J Fibre Text Res 2005; 30(4): 431-6.
Duraipandiyan V, Ayyanar M, Ignacimuthu S. Antimicrobial activity of some ethnomedicinal plants used by Paliyar tribe from Tamil Nadu, India. BMC Complement Altern Med 2006; 6: 35.
[] [PMID: 17042964]
Vasconcelos LCDS, Sampaio FC, Sampaio MCC, Pereira Mdo S, Higino JS, Peixoto MHP. Minimum inhibitory concentration of adherence of Punica granatum Linn (pomegranate) gel against S. mutans, S. mitis and C. albicans. Braz Dent J 2006; 17(3): 223-7.
[] [PMID: 17262129]
Gopalakrishnan S, Benny PJ. In vitro antimicrobial properties of Punica granatum extract on bacteria causing urinary tract infections. Indian Drugs 2009; 46(9): 17-22.
Santhanamari T, Meenakshi PR, Velayutham S. In vitro antibacterial activity of extracts of Lawsonia inermis and Punica granatum against clinically isolated antibiotic resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Asian J Pharma Clin Res 2011; 4(1): 62-5.
Kwon DY, Choi JG, Kang OH, et al. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity of punica granatum peel ethanol extract against salmonella. Evidence-based Complement Altern Med 2011; 2011.
Devi A, Singh V, Bhatt AB. In-vitro antibacterial activity of pomegranate and daru (wild pomegranate) against dental plaque bacteria. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2011; 3(4): 182-4.
Rajendran R, Balakumar C, Kalaivani J, Sivakumar R. Dyeability and antimicrobial properties of cotton fabrics finished with Punica granatum extracts. J Textile App Technol Management 2011; 7(2)
Haniffa MA, Shanthi P. Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial screening of medicinal plants against aeromonas hydrophila. Asian J Pharma Clin Res 2012; 5(2): 101-3.
Ullah N, Ali J, Ali Khan F, Khurram M, Hussain A. Proximate composition, minerals content, antibacterial and antifungal activity evaluation of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peels powder. Middle East J Sci Res 2012; 11(3): 396-401.
Israr F, Hassan F, Naqvi BS, Azhar I, Jabeen S, Hasan SMF. Report: Studies on antibacterial activity of some traditional medicinal plants used in folk medicine. Pak J Pharm Sci 2012; 25(3): 669-74.
[PMID: 22713958]
Anibal PC, Peixoto ITA, Foglio MA, Höfling JF. Antifungal activity of the ethanolic extracts of Punica granatum L. and evaluation of the morphological and structural modifications of its compounds upon the cells of Candida spp. Braz J Microbiol 2013; 44(3): 839-48.
[] [PMID: 24516425]
Janani J, Estherlydia D. Antimicrobial activities of Punica granatum extracts against oral microorganisms. Int J Pharm Tech Res 2013; 5(3): 973-7.
de Oliveira JR, de Castro VC, das Graças Figueiredo Vilela P, et al. Cytotoxicity of Brazilian plant extracts against oral microorganisms of interest to dentistry. BMC Complement Altern Med 2013; 13: 208.
[] [PMID: 23945270]
Nayak SB, Rodrigues V, Maharaj S, Bhogadi VS. Wound healing activity of the fruit skin of Punica granatum. J Med Food 2013; 16(9): 857-61.
[] [PMID: 24044494]
Madduluri S, Babu Rao K, Sitaram B. In vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of five indigenous plants extract against five bacterial pathogens of human. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013; 5(Suppl. 4): 679-84.
Vahid Dastjerdi E, Abdolazimi Z, Ghazanfarian M, Amdjadi P, Kamalinejad M, Mahboubi A. Effect of Punica granatum l. flower water extract on five common oral bacteria and bacterial biofilm formation on orthodontic wire. Iran J Public Health 2014; 43(12): 1688-94.
[PMID: 26171362]
Mahajan DC, Satyapal US, Tatke PA, Naharwar V. Antimicrobial and anthelmentic activity of Punica granatum fruit peel extracts. Int J Pharmacog Phytochem Res 2014; 6(3): 482-7.
Khan N, Abbasi AM, Dastagir G, et al. Ethnobotanical and antimicrobial study of some selected medicinal plants used in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) as a potential source to cure infectious diseases. BMC Complement Altern Med 2014; 14: 122.
[] [PMID: 24708514]
Jahanpour S, Ghazisaidi K, Davoodi H, Mazandarani M, Samet M, Jahanpour N, et al. Antimicrobial effects of folk medicinal plants from the North of Iran against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Arch Pediat Infect Dis 2015; 3(1TB)
Bassiri-Jahromi S, Katiraee F, Hajimahmoodi M, Mostafavi E, Talebi M, Pourshafie MR. In vitro antifungal activity of various persian cultivars of Punica granatum L. Extracts against Candida species. Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod 2015; 10(3)
Assaf AM, Amro BI, Mashallah S, Haddadin RN. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory potential therapy for opportunistic microorganisms. J Infect Dev Ctries 2016; 10(5): 494-505.
[] [PMID: 27249525]
Bisht R, Chanyal S, Agrawal PK. Antimicrobial and phytochemical analysis of leaf extract of medicinal fruit plants. Asian J Pharma Clin Res 2016; 9(4): 131-6.
Chalke T, Sharma K, Nagare SK, Jirge SS. Formualtion and evaluation of punica topical gel for its content of gallic acid and anti-microbial study. Int J Drug Deliv Technol 2016; 6(3): 75-8.
Rengarajan S, Melanathuru V, Munuswamy D, Sundaram S, Selvaraj ST. A comparative study of in vitro antimicrobial activity and TLC studies of petals of selected Indian medicinal plants. Asian J Pharma Clin Res 2016; 9(5): 259-63.
Mishra MP, Rath S, Swain SS, Ghosh G, Das D, Padhy RN. In vitro antibacterial activity of crude extracts of 9 selected medicinal plants against UTI causing MDR bacteria. J King Saud Univ Sci 2017; 29(1): 84-95.
Almawlah YH, Alaa H, Al-Jelawi SO. Antibacterial activity of three plant extracts against multidrug resistance Pseudomonas Aeruginosa. Asian J Pharma Clin Res 2017; 10(12): 193-7.
Al-Obaidi DM, Muhsin SA, Ibrahim AA. In vivo antimicrobial inhibition of Punica granatum extracts as mouthwash. Russian Open Medl J 2017; 6(4)
Karaköse E, Çolak H, Duman F. Green synthesis and antimicrobial activity of ZnO nanostructures Punica granatum shell extract. Green Proces Syn 2017; 6(3): 317-23.
Chandar B, Poovitha S, Ilango K. MohanKumar R, Parani M. Inhibition of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) producing Escherichia coli IR-6 by selected plant extracts and their synergistic actions with antibiotics. Front Microbiol 2017; 8(AUG)
Usman H, Tijjani MA, Hassan A, Aji ZB. Comparative phytochemical and in vitro antimicrobial activities of the leaf extracts of two medicinal plants growing in North-East, Nigeria. J HerbMed Pharmacol 2018; 7(2): 61-7.
Devanesan S, AlSalhi MS, Balaji RV, et al. Antimicrobial and Cytotoxicity Effects of Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles from Punica granatum Peel Extract. Nanoscale Res Lett 2018; 13(1): 315.
[] [PMID: 30288618]
Venkataramanan S, Suguneswary KS, Kavitha K, Snigdha M. Antibacterial effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of punica granatum pericarp and seed on the food borne pathogens. Int J Med Toxicol Legal Med 2018; 21(3-4): 75-9.
Deewongkij P, Taweechotipatr M, Kamanamool N, Udompataikul M. In-vitro study of antibacterial activities of phyllanthus emblica l. Leaves, punica granatum L. peels, and curcuma longa l. rhizomes crude extracts to propionibacterium acnes isolated from acne vulgaris patients. J Med Assoc Thai 2018; 101(9): 1169-76.
Pinni J, Sankar Avula JS, Mukthineni S, Bandi S, Gokul T. Antimicrobial activity of pomegranate (Punica Granatum) pericarp extract against Streptococcus mutans- A source for natural mouth rinse: An in-vitro and in-vivo study. Biomed Pharmacol J 2018; 11(4): 2025-30.
Priyanka J, Packiyalakshmi R, Padmapriya P, Pavithra MKS. Phytochemical and anti-microbial analysis of punica granatum peel and rind extract. Int J Innov Technol Explor Engineer 2019; 8(3): 88-90.
Basak S, Wazed Ali S. Wastage pomegranate rind extracts (PRE): a one step green solution for bioactive and naturally dyed cotton substrate with special emphasis on its fire protection efficacy. Cellulose 2019; 26(5): 3601-23.
Binti Mohd Nor Hamin NS, Sahadan MY, Rozman NAS, et al. Development of medical cotton fabrics with Punica granatum L extract finishing for nosocomial infections control. J Nat Fibers 2019; 16(3): 404-11.
Shahid M. Shahid ul I, Rather LJ, Manzoor N, Mohammad F. Simultaneous shade development, antibacterial, and antifungal functionalization of wool using Punica granatum L. Peel extract as a source of textile dye. J Nat Fibers 2019; 16(4): 555-66.
Vasconcelos LC, Sampaio MC, Sampaio FC, Higino JS. Use of Punica granatum as an antifungal agent against candidosis associated with denture stomatitis. Mycoses 2003; 46(5-6): 192-6.
[] [PMID: 12801361]
Pai MBH, Prashant GM, Murlikrishna KS, Shivakumar KM, Chandu GN. Antifungal efficacy of Punica granatum, Acacia nilotica, Cuminum cyminum and Foeniculum vulgare on Candida albicans: an in vitro study. Indian J Dent Res 2010; 21(3): 334-6.
[] [PMID: 20930339]
Ponnusamy K, Petchiammal C, Mohankumar R, Hopper W. In vitro antifungal activity of indirubin isolated from a South Indian ethnomedicinal plant Wrightia tinctoria R. Br J Ethnopharmacol 2010; 132(1): 349-54.
[] [PMID: 20691774]
Lavaee F, Motaghi D, Jassbi AR, Jafarian H, Ghasemi F, Badiee P. Antifungal effect of the bark and root extracts of Punica granatum on oral Candida isolates. Curr Med Mycol 2018; 4(4): 20-4.
[PMID: 30815613]
Hassan SM, Sultana B, Iqbal M. Aflatoxin biosynthesis control produced by Aspergillus flavus in layer hens feed during storage period of six months. J Mycol Med 2017; 27(2): 203-9.
[] [PMID: 28351513]
Mohammed GJ, Al-Jassani MJ, Hameed IH. Anti-bacterial, antifungal activity and chemical analysis of Punica grantanum (Pomegranate peel) using GC-MS and FTIR spectroscopy. Int J Pharmacog Phytochem Res 2016; 8(3): 480-94.
Dandekar A, Mendez R, Zhang K. Cross talk between ER stress, oxidative stress, and inflammation in health and disease Stress Responses. Springer 2015; pp. 205-14.
Adams LS, Seeram NP, Aggarwal BB, Takada Y, Sand D, Heber D. Pomegranate juice, total pomegranate ellagitannins, and punicalagin suppress inflammatory cell signaling in colon cancer cells. J Agric Food Chem 2006; 54(3): 980-5.
[] [PMID: 16448212]
Wang L, Tu Y-C, Lian T-W, Hung J-T, Yen J-H, Wu M-J. Distinctive antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects of flavonols. J Agric Food Chem 2006; 54(26): 9798-804.
[] [PMID: 17177504]
Wang D, Özen C, Abu-Reidah IM, et al. Vasculoprotective effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.). Front Pharmacol 2018; 9: 544.
[] [PMID: 29881352]

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2022 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy