Generic placeholder image

Current Neuropharmacology

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1570-159X
ISSN (Online): 1875-6190

Systematic Review Article

The Therapeutic Potential and Usage Patterns of Cannabinoids in People with Spinal Cord Injuries: A Systematic Review

Author(s): Kylie J. Nabata, Emmanuel K. Tse, Tom E. Nightingale, Amanda H.X. Lee, Janice J. Eng, Matthew Querée, Matthias Walter and Andrei V. Krassioukov*

Volume 19, Issue 3, 2021

Published on: 20 April, 2020

Page: [402 - 432] Pages: 31

DOI: 10.2174/1570159X18666200420085712

Price: $65

Abstract

Background: People with spinal cord injuries (SCI) commonly experience pain and spasticity; limitations of current treatments have generated interest in cannabis as a possible therapy.

Objectives: We conducted this systematic review to: 1) examine usage patterns and reasons for cannabinoid use, and 2) determine the treatment efficacy and safety of cannabinoid use in people with SCI.

Methods: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases were queried for keywords related to SCI and cannabinoids.

Results: 7,232 studies were screened, and 34 were included in this systematic review. Though 26 studies addressed cannabinoid usage, only 8 investigated its therapeutic potential on outcomes such as pain and spasticity. The most common method of use was smoking. Relief of pain, spasticity and recreation were the most common reasons for use. A statistically significant reduction of pain and spasticity was observed with cannabinoid use in 83% and 100% of experimental studies, respectively. However, on examination of randomized control trials (RCTs) alone, effect sizes ranged from - 0.82 to 0.83 for pain and -0.95 to 0.09 for spasticity. Cannabinoid use was associated with fatigue and cognitive deficits.

Conclusion: Current evidence suggests that cannabinoids may reduce pain and spasticity in people with SCI, but its effect magnitude and clinical significance are unclear. Existing information is lacking on optimal dosage, method of use, composition and concentration of compounds. Long-term, double-blind, RCTs, assessing a wider range of outcomes should be conducted to further understand the effects of cannabinoid use in people with SCI.

Keywords: Spinal cord injury, cannabinoids, cannabis, marijuana, pain, spasticity.

« Previous
Graphical Abstract
[1]
Boakye, M.; Leigh, B.C.; Skelly, A.C. Quality of life in persons with spinal cord injury: comparisons with other populations. J. Neurosurg. Spine, 2012, 17(1)(Suppl.), 29-37.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2012.6.AOSPINE1252] [PMID: 22985368]
[2]
Guilcher, S.J.; Craven, B.C.; Lemieux-Charles, L.; Casciaro, T.; McColl, M.A.; Jaglal, S.B. Secondary health conditions and spinal cord injury: an uphill battle in the journey of care. Disabil. Rehabil., 2013, 35(11), 894-906.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09638288.2012.721048] [PMID: 23020250]
[3]
James, S.L.; Theadom, A.; Ellenbogen, R.G.; Bannick, M.S.; Montjoy-Venning, W.; Lucchesi, L.R.; Abbasi, N.; Abdulkader, R.; Abraha, H.N.; Adsuar, J.C.; Afarideh, M.; Agrawal, S.; Ahmadi, A.; Ahmed, M.B.; Aichour, A.N.; Aichour, I.; Aichour, M.T.E.; Akinyemi, R.O.; Akseer, N.; Alahdab, F.; Alebel, A.; Alghnam, S.A.; Ali, B.A.; Alsharif, U.; Altirkawi, K.; Andrei, C.L.; Anjomshoa, M.; Ansari, H.; Ansha, M.G.; Antonio, C.A.T.; Appiah, S.C.Y.; Ariani, F.; Asefa, N.G.; Asgedom, S.W.; Atique, S.; Awasthi, A.; Ayala, Q.B.P.; Ayuk, T.B.; Azzopardi, P.S.; Badali, H.; Badawi, A.; Balalla, S.; Banstola, A.; Barker-Collo, S.L.; Bärnighausen, T.W.; Bedi, N.; Behzadifar, M.; Bekele, B.B.; Belachew, A.B.; Belay, Y.A.; Bennett, D.A.; Bensenor, I.M.; Berhane, A.; Beuran, M.; Bhalla, A.; Bhaumik, S.; Bhutta, Z.A.; Biadgo, B.; Biffino, M.; Bijani, A.; Bililign, N.; Birungi, C.; Boufous, S.; Brazinova, A.; Brown, A.W.; Car, M.; Cárdenas, R.; Carrero, J.J.; Carvalho, F.; Castañeda-Orjuela, C.A.; Catalá-López, F.; Chaiah, Y.; Champs, A.P.; Chang, J-C.; Choi, J-Y.J.; Christopher, D.J.; Cooper, C.; Crowe, C.S.; Dandona, L.; Dandona, R.; Daryani, A.; Davitoiu, D.V.; Degefa, M.G.; Demoz, G.T.; Deribe, K.; Djalalinia, S.; Do, H.P.; Doku, D.T.; Drake, T.M.; Dubey, M.; Dubljanin, E.; El-Khatib, Z.; Ofori-Asenso, R.; Eskandarieh, S.; Esteghamati, A.; Esteghamati, S.; Faro, A.; Farzadfar, F.; Farzaei, M.H.; Fereshtehnejad, S-M.; Fernandes, E.; Feyissa, G.T.; Filip, I.; Fischer, F.; Fukumoto, T.; Ganji, M.; Gankpe, F.G.; Gebre, A.K.; Gebrehiwot, T.T.; Gezae, K.E.; Gopalkrishna, G.; Goulart, A.C.; Haagsma, J.A.; Haj-Mirzaian, A.; Haj-Mirzaian, A.; Hamadeh, R.R.; Hamidi, S.; Haro, J.M.; Hassankhani, H.; Hassen, H.Y.; Havmoeller, R.; Hawley, C.; Hay, S.I.; Hegazy, M.I.; Hendrie, D.; Henok, A.; Hibstu, D.T.; Hoffman, H.J.; Hole, M.K.; Homaie Rad, E.; Hosseini, S.M.; Hostiuc, S.; Hu, G.; Hussen, M.A.; Ilesanmi, O.S.; Irvani, S.S.N.; Jakovljevic, M.; Jayaraman, S.; Jha, R.P.; Jonas, J.B.; Jones, K.M.; Jorjoran, S. Z.; Jozwiak, J.J.; Jürisson, M.; Kabir, A.; Kahsay, A.; Kahssay, M.; Kalani, R.; Karch, A.; Kasaeian, A.; Kassa, G.M.; Kassa, T.D.; Kassa, Z.Y.; Kengne, A.P.; Khader, Y.S.; Khafaie, M.A.; Khalid, N.; Khalil, I.; Khan, E.A.; Khan, M.S.; Khang, Y-H.; Khazaie, H.; Khoja, A.T.; Khubchandani, J.; Kiadaliri, A.A.; Kim, D.; Kim, Y-E.; Kisa, A.; Koyanagi, A.; Krohn, K.J.; Defo, K. B.; Kucuk Bicer, B.; Kumar, G. A.; Kumar, M.; Lalloo, R.; Lami, F. H.; Lansingh, V. C.; Laryea, D. O.; Latifi, A.; Leshargie, C. T.; Levi, M.; Li, S.; Liben, M. L.; Lotufo, P. A.; Lunevicius, R.; Mahotra, N. B.; Majdan, M.; Majeed, A.; Malekzadeh, R.; Manda, A.-L.; Mansournia, M. A.; Massenburg, B. B.; Mate, K. K. V.; Mehndiratta, M. M.; Mehta, V.; Meles, H.; Melese, A.; Memiah, P. T. N.; Mendoza, W.; Mengistu, G.; Meretoja, A.; Meretoja, T. J.; Mestrovic, T.; Miazgowski, T.; Miller, T. R.; Mini, G. K.; Mirica, A.; Mirrakhimov, E. M.; Moazen, B.; Mohammadi, M.; Molokhia, M.; Monasta, L.; Mondello, S.; Moosazadeh, M.; Moradi, G.; Moradi, M.; Moradi-Lakeh, M.; Moradinazar, M.; Morrison, S. D.; Moschos, M. M.; Mousavi, S. M.; Murthy, S.; Musa, K. I.; Mustafa, G.; Naghavi, M.; Naik, G.; Najafi, F.; Nangia, V.; Nascimento, B. R.; Negoi, I.; Nguyen, T. H.; Nichols, E.; Ningrum, D. N. A.; Nirayo, Y. L.; Nyasulu, P. S.; Ogbo, F. A.; Oh, I.-H.; Okoro, A.; Olagunju, A. T.; Olagunju, T. O.; Olivares, P. R.; Otstavnov, S. S.; Owolabi, M. O.; P A, M.; Pakhale, S.; Pandey, A. R.; Pesudovs, K.; Pinilla-Monsalve, G. D.; Polinder, S.; Poustchi, H.; Prakash, S.; Qorbani, M.; Radfar, A.; Rafay, A.; Rafiei, A.; Rahimi-Movaghar, A.; Rahimi-Movaghar, V.; Rahman, M.; Rahman, M. A.; Rai, R. K.; Rajati, F.; Ram, U.; Rawaf, D. L.; Rawaf, S.; Reiner, R. C.; Reis, C.; Renzaho, A. M. N.; Resnikoff, S.; Rezaei, S.; Rezaeian, S.; Roever, L.; Ronfani, L.; Roshandel, G.; Roy, N.; Ruhago, G. M.; Saddik, B.; Safari, H.; Safiri, S.; Sahraian, M. A.; Salamati, P.; Saldanha, R. d. F.; Samy, A. M.; Sanabria, J.; Santos, J. V.; Santric Milicevic, M. M. M.; Sartorius, B.; Satpathy, M.; Savuon, K.; Schneider, I. J. C.; Schwebel, D. C.; Sepanlou, S. G.; Shabaninejad, H.; Shaikh, M. A. A.; Shams-Beyranvand, M.; Sharif, M.; Sharif-Alhoseini, M.; Shariful, I. S. M.; She, J.; Sheikh, A.; Shen, J.; Sheth, K. N.; Shibuya, K.; Shiferaw, M. S.; Shigematsu, M.; Shiri, R.; Shiue, I.; Shoman, H.; Siabani, S.; Siddiqi, T. J.; Silva, J. P.; Silveira, D. G. A.; Sinha, D. N.; Smith, M.; Soares, F. A. M.; Sobhani, S.; Soofi, M.; Soriano, J. B.; Soyiri, I. N.; Stein, D. J.; Stokes, M. A.; Sufiyan, M. a. B.; Sunguya, B. F.; Sunshine, J. E.; Sykes, B. L.; Szoeke, C. E. I.; Tabarés-Seisdedos, R.; Te Ao, B. J.; Tehrani-Banihashemi, A.; Tekle, M. G.; Temsah, M.-H.; Temsah, O.; Topor-Madry, R.; Tortajada-Girbés, M.; Tran, B. X.; Tran, K. B.; Tudor Car, L.; Ukwaja, K. N.; Ullah, I.; Usman, M. S.; Uthman, O. A.; Valdez, P. R.; Vasankari, T. J.; Venketasubramanian, N.; Violante, F. S.; Wagnew, F. W. S.; Waheed, Y.; Wang, Y.-P.; Weldegwergs, K. G.; Werdecker, A.; Wijeratne, T.; Winkler, A. S.; Wyper, G. M. A.; Yano, Y.; Yaseri, M.; Yasin, Y. J.; Ye, P.; Yimer, E. M.; Yip, P.; Yisma, E.; Yonemoto, N.; Yoon, S.-J.; Yost, M. G.; Younis, M. Z.; Yousefifard, M.; Yu, C.; Zaidi, Z.; Zaman, S. B.; Zamani, M.; Zenebe, Z. M.; Zodpey, S.; Feigin, V. L.; Vos, T.; Murray, C. J. L. Global, regional, and national burden of traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet Neurol., 2019, 18(1), 56-87.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(18)30415-0] [PMID: 30497965]
[4]
Brown, A.; Weaver, L.C. The dark side of neuroplasticity. Exp. Neurol., 2012, 235(1), 133-141.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2011.11.004] [PMID: 22116043]
[5]
Bryce, T.N.; Biering-Sørensen, F.; Finnerup, N.B.; Cardenas, D.D.; Defrin, R.; Lundeberg, T.; Norrbrink, C.; Richards, J.S.; Siddall, P.; Stripling, T.; Treede, R.D.; Waxman, S.G.; Widerström-Noga, E.; Yezierski, R.P.; Dijkers, M. International spinal cord injury pain classification: part I. Background and description. March 6-7, 2009. Spinal Cord, 2012, 50(6), 413-417.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sc.2011.156] [PMID: 22182852]
[6]
Sköld, C.; Levi, R.; Seiger, A. Spasticity after traumatic spinal cord injury: nature, severity, and location. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 1999, 80(12), 1548-1557.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-9993(99)90329-5] [PMID: 10597805]
[7]
Maynard, F.M.; Karunas, R.S.; Waring, W.P., III Epidemiology of spasticity following traumatic spinal cord injury. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 1990, 71(8), 566-569.
[PMID: 2369291]
[8]
Siddall, P.J.; McClelland, J.M.; Rutkowski, S.B.; Cousins, M.J. A longitudinal study of the prevalence and characteristics of pain in the first 5 years following spinal cord injury. Pain, 2003, 103(3), 249-257.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3959(02)00452-9] [PMID: 12791431]
[9]
Holtz, K.A.; Szefer, E.; Noonan, V.K.; Kwon, B.K.; Mills, P.B. Treatment patterns of in-patient spasticity medication use after traumatic spinal cord injury: a prospective cohort study. Spinal Cord, 2018, 56(12), 1176-1183.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41393-018-0165-0] [PMID: 29904191]
[10]
Becker, W.J.; Harris, C.J.; Long, M.L.; Ablett, D.P.; Klein, G.M.; DeForge, D.A. Long-term intrathecal baclofen therapy in patients with intractable spasticity. Can. J. Neurol. Sci., 1995, 22(3), 208-217.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S031716710003986X] [PMID: 8529173]
[11]
Fischer, B.; Ala-Leppilampi, K.; Single, E.; Robins, A. Cannabis law reform in Canada: Is the” Saga of promise, hesitation and retreat” coming to an end? 1. Can. J. Criminol. Crim. Justice, 2003, 45(3), 265-298.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3138/cjccj.45.3.265]
[13]
Leos-Toro, C.; Shiplo, S.; Hammond, D. Perceived support for medical cannabis use among approved medical cannabis users in Canada. Drug Alcohol Rev., 2018, 37(5), 627-636.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dar.12823] [PMID: 29873132]
[14]
Pertwee, R.G. Endocannabinoids and their pharmacological actions. Handb. Exp. Pharmacol., 2015, 231, 1-37.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-20825-1_1] [PMID: 26408156]
[15]
Small, E.; Cronquist, A. A practical and natural taxonomy for Cannabis. Taxon, 1976, •••, 405-435.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1220524]
[16]
Mackie, K. Cannabinoid receptors: where they are and what they do. J. Neuroendocrinol., 2008, 20(Suppl. 1), 10-14.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2826.2008.01671.x] [PMID: 18426493]
[17]
Pryce, G.; Baker, D. Control of spasticity in a multiple sclerosis model is mediated by CB1, not CB2, cannabinoid receptors. Br. J. Pharmacol., 2007, 150(4), 519-525.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjp.0707003] [PMID: 17220914]
[18]
Schrot, R.J.; Hubbard, J.R. Cannabinoids: Medical implications. Ann. Med., 2016, 48(3), 128-141.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/07853890.2016.1145794] [PMID: 26912385]
[19]
Russo, E.B.; Burnett, A.; Hall, B.; Parker, K.K. Agonistic properties of cannabidiol at 5-HT1a receptors. Neurochem. Res., 2005, 30(8), 1037-1043.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-005-6978-1] [PMID: 16258853]
[20]
Staton, P.C.; Hatcher, J.P.; Walker, D.J.; Morrison, A.D.; Shapland, E.M.; Hughes, J.P.; Chong, E.; Mander, P.K.; Green, P.J.; Billinton, A.; Fulleylove, M.; Lancaster, H.C.; Smith, J.C.; Bailey, L.T.; Wise, A.; Brown, A.J.; Richardson, J.C.; Chessell, I.P. The putative cannabinoid receptor GPR55 plays a role in mechanical hyperalgesia associated with inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Pain, 2008, 139(1), 225-236.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2008.04.006] [PMID: 18502582]
[21]
Ahrens, J.; Demir, R.; Leuwer, M.; de la Roche, J.; Krampfl, K.; Foadi, N.; Karst, M.; Haeseler, G. The nonpsychotropic cannabinoid cannabidiol modulates and directly activates alpha-1 and alpha-1-Beta glycine receptor function. Pharmacology, 2009, 83(4), 217-222.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000201556] [PMID: 19204413]
[22]
Burstein, S. Cannabidiol (CBD) and its analogs: a review of their effects on inflammation. Bioorg. Med. Chem., 2015, 23(7), 1377-1385.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2015.01.059] [PMID: 25703248]
[23]
De Petrocellis, L.; Ligresti, A.; Moriello, A.S.; Allarà, M.; Bisogno, T.; Petrosino, S.; Stott, C.G.; Di Marzo, V. Effects of cannabinoids and cannabinoid-enriched Cannabis extracts on TRP channels and endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes. Br. J. Pharmacol., 2011, 163(7), 1479-1494.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.01166.x] [PMID: 21175579]
[24]
Morales, P.; Hurst, D.P.; Reggio, P.H. Molecular targets of the phytocannabinoids: a complex picture. Prog. Chem. Org. Nat. Prod., 2017, 103, 103-131.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-45541-9_4] [PMID: 28120232]
[25]
Pernía-Andrade, A.J.; Kato, A.; Witschi, R.; Nyilas, R.; Katona, I.; Freund, T.F.; Watanabe, M.; Filitz, J.; Koppert, W.; Schüttler, J.; Ji, G.; Neugebauer, V.; Marsicano, G.; Lutz, B.; Vanegas, H.; Zeilhofer, H.U. Spinal endocannabinoids and CB1 receptors mediate C-fiber-induced heterosynaptic pain sensitization. Science, 2009, 325(5941), 760-764.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1171870] [PMID: 19661434]
[26]
Ross, R.A. Anandamide and vanilloid TRPV1 receptors. Br. J. Pharmacol., 2003, 140(5), 790-801.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjp.0705467] [PMID: 14517174]
[27]
Hill, K.P.; Palastro, M.D.; Johnson, B.; Ditre, J.W. Cannabis and pain: A clinical review. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res., 2017, 2(1), 96-104.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/can.2017.0017] [PMID: 28861509]
[28]
Andre, C.M.; Hausman, J.F.; Guerriero, G. Cannabis sativa: The plant of the thousand and one molecules. Front. Plant Sci., 2016, 7, 19.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.00019] [PMID: 26870049]
[29]
Campbell, F.A.; Tramèr, M.R.; Carroll, D.; Reynolds, D.J.M.; Moore, R.A.; McQuay, H.J. Are cannabinoids an effective and safe treatment option in the management of pain? A qualitative systematic review. BMJ, 2001, 323(7303), 13-16.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.323.7303.13] [PMID: 11440935]
[30]
Gates, P.J.; Albertella, L.; Copeland, J. The effects of cannabinoid administration on sleep: a systematic review of human studies. Sleep Med. Rev., 2014, 18(6), 477-487.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2014.02.005] [PMID: 24726015]
[31]
Lynch, M.E.; Campbell, F. Cannabinoids for treatment of chronic non-cancer pain; a systematic review of randomized trials. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol., 2011, 72(5), 735-744.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2011.03970.x] [PMID: 21426373]
[32]
Machado, R.F.C.; Stéfano, S.C.; De Cássia, H.R.; Rosa Oliveira, L.M.; Da Silveira, D.X. Therapeutic use of Cannabis sativa on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting among cancer patients: systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur. J. Cancer Care (Engl.), 2008, 17(5), 431-443.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2354.2008.00917.x] [PMID: 18625004]
[33]
Martín-Sánchez, E.; Furukawa, T.A.; Taylor, J.; Martin, J.L.R. Systematic review and meta-analysis of cannabis treatment for chronic pain. Pain Med., 2009, 10(8), 1353-1368.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-4637.2009.00703.x] [PMID: 19732371]
[34]
Tramèr, M.R.; Carroll, D.; Campbell, F.A.; Reynolds, D.J.M.; Moore, R.A.; McQuay, H.J. Cannabinoids for control of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting: quantitative systematic review. BMJ, 2001, 323(7303), 16-21.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.323.7303.16] [PMID: 11440936]
[35]
Higgins, J.; Wells, G. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions., 2011..
[36]
Liberati, A.; Altman, D.G.; Tetzlaff, J.; Mulrow, C.; Gøtzsche, P.C.; Ioannidis, J.P.A.; Clarke, M.; Devereaux, P.J.; Kleijnen, J.; Moher, D. The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration. PLoS Med., 2009, 6(7), e1000100..
[PMID: 19621070] [http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000100]
[37]
Lung, N. H.; Institute, B. Study quality assessment tools. 2014, 2018..
[38]
Sallis, J.F.; Prochaska, J.J.; Taylor, W.C. A review of correlates of physical activity of children and adolescents. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 2000, 32(5), 963-975.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200005000-00014] [PMID: 10795788]
[39]
Cohen, J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences; Academic press, 2013.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203771587]
[40]
Corey-Bloom, J.; Wolfson, T.; Gamst, A.; Jin, S.; Marcotte, T.D.; Bentley, H.; Gouaux, B. Smoked cannabis for spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. CMAJ, 2012, 184(10), 1143-1150.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.110837] [PMID: 22586334]
[41]
Lipsey, M.W.; Wilson, D.B. The efficacy of psychological, educational, and behavioral treatment. Confirmation from meta-analysis. Am. Psychol., 1993, 48(12), 1181-1209.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.48.12.1181] [PMID: 8297057]
[42]
Fekete, C.; Weyers, S.; Siegrist, J.; Michel, G.; Gemperli, A. Poor nutrition and substance use in a Swiss cohort of adults with spinal cord injury. J. Public Health-Heidelberg, 2015, 23(1), 25-35.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10389-015-0653-z]
[43]
Young, M.E.; Rintala, D.H.; Rossi, C.D.; Hart, K.A.; Fuhrer, M.J. Alcohol and marijuana use in a community-based sample of persons with spinal cord injury. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 1995, 76(6), 525-532.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-9993(95)80506-0] [PMID: 7763151]
[44]
Andresen, S.R.; Biering-Sørensen, F.; Hagen, E.M.; Nielsen, J.F.; Bach, F.W.; Finnerup, N.B. Cannabis use in persons with traumatic spinal cord injury in Denmark. J. Rehabil. Med., 2017, 49(2), 152-160.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2340/16501977-2105] [PMID: 28101559]
[45]
Drossel, C.; Forchheimer, M.; Meade, M.A. Characteristics of individuals with spinal cord injury who use cannabis for therapeutic purposes. Top. Spinal Cord Inj. Rehabil., 2016, 22(1), 3-12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1310/sci2201-3] [PMID: 29398889]
[46]
Aggarwal, S.K.; Carter, G.T.; Sullivan, M.D.; ZumBrunnen, C.; Morrill, R.; Mayer, J.D. Characteristics of patients with chronic pain accessing treatment with medical cannabis in Washington State. J. Opioid. Manag., 2009, 5(5), 257-286.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5055/jom.2009.0028] [PMID: 19947069]
[47]
Clark, J.M.; Cao, Y.; Krause, J.S. Risk of pain medication misuse after spinal cord injury: the role of substance use, personality, and depression. J. Pain, 2017, 18(2), 166-177.
[48]
Hwang, M.; Chlan, K.M.; Vogel, L.C.; Zebracki, K. Substance use in young adults with pediatric-onset spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord, 2012, 50(7), 497-501.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sc.2012.8] [PMID: 22370762]
[49]
Hawley, L.A.; Ketchum, J.M.; Morey, C.; Collins, K.; Charlifue, S. Cannabis use in individuals with spinal cord injury or moderate to severe traumatic brain injury in Colorado. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 2018, 99(8), 1584-1590.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2018.02.003] [PMID: 29524396]
[50]
Bruce, D.; Brady, J.P.; Foster, E.; Shattell, M. Preferences for medical marijuana over prescription medications among persons living with chronic conditions: Alternative, complementary, and tapering uses. J. Altern. Complement. Med., 2018, 24(2), 146-153.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/acm.2017.0184] [PMID: 28945457]
[51]
Grotenhermen, F.; Schnelle, M. Survey on the medical use of cannabis and THC in Germany. J. Cannabis Ther., 2003, 3(2), 17-40.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J175v03n02_03]
[52]
Gorter, R.W.; Butorac, M.; Cobian, E.P.; van der Sluis, W. Medical use of cannabis in the Netherlands. Neurology, 2005, 64(5), 917-919.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/01.WNL.0000152845.09088.28] [PMID: 15753439]
[53]
Cardenas, D.D.; Jensen, M.P. Treatments for chronic pain in persons with spinal cord injury: A survey study. J. Spinal Cord Med., 2006, 29(2), 109-117.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10790268.2006.11753864] [PMID: 16739554]
[54]
Shroff, F.M. Experiences with holistic health practices among adults with spinal cord injury. Rehabilitation Process and Outcome, 2015, 4, 27-34.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4137/RPO.S12363]
[55]
Hagenbach, U.; Luz, S.; Ghafoor, N.; Berger, J.M.; Grotenhermen, F.; Brenneisen, R.; Mäder, M. The treatment of spasticity with Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in persons with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord, 2007, 45(8), 551-562.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.sc.3101982] [PMID: 17043680]
[56]
Karst, M.; Salim, K.; Burstein, S.; Conrad, I.; Hoy, L.; Schneider, U. Analgesic effect of the synthetic cannabinoid CT-3 on chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 2003, 290(13), 1757-1762.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.290.13.1757] [PMID: 14519710]
[57]
Rintala, D.H.; Fiess, R.N.; Tan, G.; Holmes, S.A.; Bruel, B.M. Effect of dronabinol on central neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury: a pilot study. Am. J. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 2010, 89(10), 840-848.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PHM.0b013e3181f1c4ec] [PMID: 20855984]
[58]
Wade, D.T.; Robson, P.; House, H.; Makela, P.; Aram, J. A preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms. Clin. Rehabil., 2003, 17(1), 21-29.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/0269215503cr581oa] [PMID: 12617376]
[59]
Wilsey, B.; Marcotte, T.; Tsodikov, A.; Millman, J.; Bentley, H.; Gouaux, B.; Fishman, S. A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of cannabis cigarettes in neuropathic pain. Pain, 2008, 89(10), 840-848.
[60]
Wilsey, B.; Marcotte, T.D.; Deutsch, R.; Zhao, H.; Prasad, H.; Phan, A. An exploratory human laboratory experiment evaluating vaporized cannabis in the treatment of neuropathic pain from spinal cord injury and disease. Pain, 2016, 17(9), 982-1000.
[61]
Olsen, M.F.; Bjerre, E.; Hansen, M.D.; Tendal, B.; Hilden, J.; Hróbjartsson, A. Minimum clinically important differences in chronic pain vary considerably by baseline pain and methodological factors: systematic review of empirical studies. J. Clin. Epidemiol., 2018, 101, 87-106.e2.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2018.05.007] [PMID: 29793007]
[62]
Lee, J.S.; Hobden, E.; Stiell, I.G.; Wells, G.A. Clinically important change in the visual analog scale after adequate pain control. Acad. Emerg., 2003, 10(10), 1128-1130.
[63]
Dunn, M.; Davis, R. The perceived effects of marijuana on spinal cord injured males. Paraplegia, 1974, 12(3), 175.
[PMID: 4453421]
[64]
Malec, J.; Harvey, R.F.; Cayner, J.J. Cannabis effect on spasticity in spinal cord injury. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 1982, 63(3), 116-118.
[PMID: 6978699]
[65]
Heinemann, A.W.; Doll, M.D.; Armstrong, K.J.; Schnoll, S.; Yarkony, G.M. Substance use and receipt of treatment by persons with long-term spinal cord injuries. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 1991, 72(7), 482-487.
[PMID: 2059120]
[66]
Rothstein, J.L.; Levy, E.; Fecher, R.; Gordon, S.K.; Bauman, W.A. Drug use and abuse in an urban veteran spinal cord injured population. J. Am. Paraplegia Soc., 1992, 15(4), 217-220.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01952307.1992.11761521] [PMID: 1431868]
[67]
Kolakowsky-Hayner, S.A.; Gourley, E.V., III; Kreutzer, J.S.; Marwitz, J.H.; Meade, M.A.; Cifu, D.X. Post-injury substance abuse among persons with brain injury and persons with spinal cord injury. Brain Inj., 2002, 16(7), 583-592.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699050110119475] [PMID: 12119077]
[68]
Warms, C.A.; Turner, J.A.; Marshall, H.M.; Cardenas, D.D. Treatments for chronic pain associated with spinal cord injuries: many are tried, few are helpful. Clin. J. Pain, 2002, 18(3), 154-163.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00002508-200205000-00004] [PMID: 12048417]
[69]
Mahoney, J.S.; Engebretson, J.C.; Cook, K.F.; Hart, K.A.; Robinson-Whelen, S.; Sherwood, A.M. Spasticity experience domains in persons with spinal cord injury. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 2007, 88(3), 287-294.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2006.12.029] [PMID: 17321818]
[70]
Heutink, M.; Post, M.W.; Wollaars, M.M.; van Asbeck, F.W. Chronic spinal cord injury pain: pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments and treatment effectiveness. Disabil. Rehabil., 2011, 33(5), 433-440.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09638288.2010.498557] [PMID: 20695788]
[71]
Patel, T.; Milligan, J.; Lee, J. Medication-related problems in individuals with spinal cord injury in a primary care-based clinic. J. Spinal Cord Med., 2017, 40(1), 54-61.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/2045772315Y.0000000055] [PMID: 26446538]
[72]
Bourke, J.A.; Catherwood, V.J.; Nunnerley, J.L.; Martin, R.A.; Levack, W.M.M.; Thompson, B.L.; Acland, R.H. Using cannabis for pain management after spinal cord injury: a qualitative study. Spinal Cord Ser. Cases, 2019, 5, 82.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41394-019-0227-3] [PMID: 31632740]
[73]
Eldridge, L.A.; Piatt, J.A.; Agley, J.; Gerke, S. Relationship between substance use and the onset of Spinal Cord Injuries: A medical chart review. Top. Spinal Cord Inj. Rehabil., 2019, 25(4), 316-321.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1310/sci2504-316] [PMID: 31844383]
[74]
Graupensperger, S.; Corey, J.J.; Turrisi, R.J.; Evans, M.B. Individuals with spinal cord injury have greater odds of substance use disorders than non-sci comparisons. Drug Alcohol Depend., 2019, 205107608
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.107608] [PMID: 31606588]
[75]
Stillman, M.; Capron, M.; Mallow, M.; Ransom, T.; Gustafson, K.; Bell, A.; Graves, D. Utilization of medicinal cannabis for pain by individuals with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord Ser. Cases, 2019, 5, 66.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41394-019-0208-6] [PMID: 31632724]
[76]
Kogel, R.W.; Johnson, P.B.; Chintam, R.; Robinson, C.J.; Nemchausky, B.A. Treatment of spasticity in spinal cord injury with dronabinol, a tetrahydrocannabinol derivative. Am. J. Ther., 1995, 2(10), 799-805.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00045391-199510000-00012] [PMID: 11854790]
[77]
Pooyania, S.; Ethans, K.; Szturm, T.; Casey, A.; Perry, D. A randomized, double-blinded, crossover pilot study assessing the effect of nabilone on spasticity in persons with spinal cord injury. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 2010, 91(5), 703-707.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2009.12.025] [PMID: 20434606]
[78]
Shaw, L.; Rodgers, H.; Price, C.; van Wijck, F.; Shackley, P.; Steen, N.; Barnes, M.; Ford, G.; Graham, L. BoTULS investigators. BoTULS: a multicentre randomised controlled trial to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of treating upper limb spasticity due to stroke with botulinum toxin type A. Health Technol. Assess., 2010, 14(26), 1-113. [iii-iv.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3310/hta14260] [PMID: 20515600]
[79]
Meseguer-Henarejos, A.B.; Sánchez-Meca, J.; López-Pina, J.A.; Carles-Hernández, R. Inter- and intra-rater reliability of the modified ashworth scale: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur. J. Phys. Rehabil. Med., 2018, 54(4), 576-590.
[PMID: 28901119]
[80]
Degenhardt, L.; Hall, W.; Lynskey, M. Exploring the association between cannabis use and depression. Addiction, 2003, 98(11), 1493-1504.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1360-0443.2003.00437.x] [PMID: 14616175]
[81]
Lee, M.C.; Ploner, M.; Wiech, K.; Bingel, U.; Wanigasekera, V.; Brooks, J.; Menon, D.K.; Tracey, I. Amygdala activity contributes to the dissociative effect of cannabis on pain perception. Pain, 2013, 154(1), 124-134.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2012.09.017] [PMID: 23273106]
[82]
Weizman, L.; Dayan, L.; Brill, S.; Nahman-Averbuch, H.; Hendler, T.; Jacob, G.; Sharon, H. Cannabis analgesia in chronic neuropathic pain is associated with altered brain connectivity. Neurology, 2018, 91(14), e1285-e1294.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000006293] [PMID: 30185448]
[83]
Krassioukov, A.; Eng, J.J.; Warburton, D.E.; Teasell, R. Spinal cord injury rehabilitation evidence research team. A systematic review of the management of orthostatic hypotension after spinal cord injury. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 2009, 90(5), 876-885.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2009.01.009] [PMID: 19406310]
[84]
Barbonetti, A.; Caterina Vassallo, M.R.; Cotugno, M.; Felzani, G.; Francavilla, S.; Francavilla, F. Low testosterone and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Evidence for their independent association in men with chronic spinal cord injury. J. Spinal Cord Med., 2016, 39(4), 443-449.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/2045772314Y.0000000288] [PMID: 25614040]
[85]
Borini, P.; Guimarães, R.C.; Borini, S.B. Possible hepatotoxicity of chronic marijuana usage. Sao Paulo Med. J., 2004, 122(3), 110-116.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-31802004000300007] [PMID: 15448809]
[86]
Adejumo, A.C.; Alliu, S.; Ajayi, T.O.; Adejumo, K.L.; Adegbala, O.M.; Onyeakusi, N.E.; Akinjero, A.M.; Durojaiye, M.; Bukong, T.N. Cannabis use is associated with reduced prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A cross-sectional study. PLoS One, 2017, 12(4)e0176416
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0176416] [PMID: 28441459]
[87]
National Academies of Sciences. E.; Medicine, The health effects of cannabis and cannabinoids: The current state of evidence and recommendations for research; National Academies Press, 2017.
[88]
Hagen, E.M.; Rekand, T. Management of Neuropathic Pain Associated with Spinal Cord Injury. Pain Ther., 2015, 4(1), 51-65.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40122-015-0033-y] [PMID: 25744501]
[89]
Russo, E.B. The case for the entourage effect and conventional breeding of clinical cannabis: No “Strain,”. No Gain. Front. Plant Sci., 2019, 9, 1969.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2018.01969] [PMID: 30687364]
[90]
Cooper, Z.D.; Bedi, G.; Ramesh, D.; Balter, R.; Comer, S.D.; Haney, M. Impact of co-administration of oxycodone and smoked cannabis on analgesia and abuse liability. Neuropsychopharmacology, 2018, 43(10), 2046-2055.
[91]
Bachhuber, M.A.; Saloner, B.; Cunningham, C.O.; Barry, C.L. Medical cannabis laws and opioid analgesic overdose mortality in the United States, 1999-2010. JAMA Intern. Med., 2014, 174(10), 1668-1673.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.4005] [PMID: 25154332]
[92]
Stewart, L.; Moher, D.; Shekelle, P. Why prospective registration of systematic reviews makes sense. Syst. Rev., 2012, 1, 7-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2046-4053-1-7] [PMID: 22588008]
[93]
Schöps, T.F.; Schneider, M.P.; Steffen, F.; Ineichen, B.V.; Mehnert, U.; Kessler, T.M. Neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) in patients with spinal cord injury: long-term urodynamic findings. BJU Int., 2015, 115(Suppl. 6), 33-38.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bju.13085] [PMID: 25891318]
[94]
Fowler, C.J.; Griffiths, D.; de Groat, W.C. The neural control of micturition. Nat. Rev. Neurosci., 2008, 9(6), 453-466.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrn2401] [PMID: 18490916]
[95]
Wan, D.; Krassioukov, A.V. Life-threatening outcomes associated with autonomic dysreflexia: a clinical review. J. Spinal Cord Med., 2014, 37(1), 2-10.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/2045772313Y.0000000098] [PMID: 24090418]
[96]
Krassioukov, A.; Warburton, D.E.; Teasell, R.; Eng, J.J. Spinal cord injury rehabilitation evidence research team. A systematic review of the management of autonomic dysreflexia after spinal cord injury. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 2009, 90(4), 682-695.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2008.10.017] [PMID: 19345787]
[97]
Salaga, M.; Abalo, R.; Fichna, J. Cannabis and cannabinoids and the effects on gastrointestinal function: an overview. Handbook of Cannabis and Related Pathologies: Biology, Pharmacology, Diagnosis, and Treatment; Preedy, V.R., Ed.; Academic Print, 2017, pp. 471-480.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-800756-3.00056-9]
[98]
Hedlund, P. Cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system in lower urinary tract function and dysfunction. Neurourol. Urodyn., 2014, 33(1), 46-53.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nau.22442] [PMID: 24285567]
[99]
Freeman, R.M.; Adekanmi, O.; Waterfield, M.R.; Waterfield, A.E.; Wright, D.; Zajicek, J. The effect of cannabis on urge incontinence in patients with multiple sclerosis: a multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial (CAMS-LUTS). Int. Urogynecol. J. Pelvic Floor Dysfunct., 2006, 17(6), 636-641.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00192-006-0086-x] [PMID: 16552618]
[100]
Brady, C.M.; DasGupta, R.; Dalton, C.; Wiseman, O.J.; Berkley, K.J.; Fowler, C.J. An open-label pilot study of cannabis-based extracts for bladder dysfunction in advanced multiple sclerosis. Mult. Scler., 2004, 10(4), 425-433.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/1352458504ms1063oa] [PMID: 15327041]
[101]
Cheng, C.W.; Bian, Z.X.; Zhu, L.X.; Wu, J.C.; Sung, J.J. Efficacy of a Chinese herbal proprietary medicine (Hemp Seed Pill) for functional constipation. Am. J. Gastroenterol., 2011, 106(1), 120-129.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ajg.2010.305] [PMID: 21045817]
[102]
Halikas, J.; Weller, R.; Morse, C. Effects of regular marijuana use on sexual performance. J. Psychoactive Drugs, 1982, 14(1-2), 59-70.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02791072.1982.10471911] [PMID: 6981694]
[103]
Cohen, S. Cannabis and sex: multifaceted paradoxes. J. Psychoactive Drugs, 1982, 14(1-2), 55-58.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02791072.1982.10471910] [PMID: 7119944]
[104]
Anderson, K.D. Targeting recovery: priorities of the spinal cord-injured population. J. Neurotrauma, 2004, 21(10), 1371-1383.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/neu.2004.21.1371] [PMID: 15672628]
[105]
Claydon, V.E.; Steeves, J.D.; Krassioukov, A. Orthostatic hypotension following spinal cord injury: understanding clinical pathophysiology. Spinal Cord, 2006, 44(6), 341-351.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.sc.3101855] [PMID: 16304564]
[106]
The Consensus Committee of the American Autonomic Society and the American Academy of Neurology. Consensus statement on the definition of orthostatic hypotension, pure autonomic failure, and multiple system atrophy. Neurology, 1996, 46(5), 1470.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.46.5.1470] [PMID: 8628505]
[107]
Freeman, R.; Abuzinadah, A.R.; Gibbons, C.; Jones, P.; Miglis, M.G.; Sinn, D.I. Orthostatic hypotension: JACC State-of-the-Art review. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., 2018, 72(11), 1294-1309.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2018.05.079] [PMID: 30190008]
[108]
Mathias, C.J. Orthostatic hypotension and paroxysmal hypertension in humans with high spinal cord injury.Prog. Brain Res., 2006,152, 231-243;
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6123(05)52015-6] [PMID: 16198704]
[109]
Jones, R.T. Cardiovascular system effects of marijuana. J. Clin. Pharmacol., 2002, 42(S1), 58S-63S.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1552-4604.2002.tb06004.x] [PMID: 12412837]
[110]
Bergamaschi, M.M.; Queiroz, R.H.; Zuardi, A.W.; Crippa, J.A. Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent. Curr. Drug Saf., 2011, 6(4), 237-249.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/157488611798280924] [PMID: 22129319]
[111]
Huestis, M.A. Human cannabinoid pharmacokinetics. Chem. Biodivers., 2007, 4(8), 1770-1804.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.200790152] [PMID: 17712819]
[112]
Bolla, K.I.; Brown, K.; Eldreth, D.; Tate, K.; Cadet, J.L. Dose-related neurocognitive effects of marijuana use. Neurology, 2002, 59(9), 1337-1343.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/01.WNL.0000031422.66442.49] [PMID: 12427880]
[113]
Sachdeva, R.; Gao, F.; Chan, C.C.H.; Krassioukov, A.V. Cognitive function after spinal cord injury: A systematic review. Neurology, 2018, 91(13), 611-621.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000006244] [PMID: 30158159]
[114]
Jones, R.T.; Benowitz, N.; Bachman, J. Clinical studies of cannabis tolerance and dependence. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 1976, 282(1), 221-239.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1976.tb49901.x] [PMID: 798533]
[115]
Linn, W.S.; Adkins, R.H.; Gong, H., Jr; Waters, R.L. Pulmonary function in chronic spinal cord injury: a cross-sectional survey of 222 southern California adult outpatients. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 2000, 81(6), 757-763.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-9993(00)90107-2] [PMID: 10857520]
[116]
Jett, J.; Stone, E.; Warren, G.; Cummings, K.M. Cannabis use, lung cancer, and related issues. J. Thorac. Oncol., 2018, 13(4), 480-487.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2017.12.013] [PMID: 29374567]
[117]
Aldington, S.; Williams, M.; Nowitz, M.; Weatherall, M.; Pritchard, A.; McNaughton, A.; Robinson, G.; Beasley, R. Effects of cannabis on pulmonary structure, function and symptoms. Thorax, 2007, 62(12), 1058-1063.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/thx.2006.077081] [PMID: 17666437]
[118]
Dicpinigaitis, P.V.; Trachuk, P.; Fakier, F.; Teka, M.; Suhrland, M.J. Vaping-Associated acute respiratory failure due to acute lipoid pneumonia. Lung, 2019, 198(1), 31-33.
[PMID: 31583455]

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2022 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy