Background: Carbon dioxide (CO2) exists in nature around us. In the middle of the 20th century, the intraluminal injection of CO2 demonstrated similar results to those of Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) with an iodinated contrast agent (ICA). Since then, the technology behind CO2 DSA has developed significantly.Objective: The aim of this study is to inform physicians about the unique properties of CO2 and its physiology after intraluminal injection. Methods: An extensive search for English literature on the properties of CO2 and the physiology of intraluminal administration was conducted using Pubmed. Results: There is sufficient literature on the properties of CO2 and the physiology of CO2 DSA. A review of this literature explains what happens to the human organism after the injection of CO2. Conclusion: There is enough evidence that CO2 DSA is both effective, diagnostic and safe, but the properties of CO2 should be taken under consideration as complications occur, although rarely.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajplegacy.19184.108.40.2065] [PMID: 13362532]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00000658-199306000-00011] [PMID: 8507115]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.25722] [PMID: 25380326]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004424-199406001-00016] [PMID: 7928269]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00000658-194008000-00004] [PMID: 17857631]