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Current Pharmaceutical Design


ISSN (Print): 1381-6128
ISSN (Online): 1873-4286

Review Article

Physiology of Intraluminal Administration of Carbon Dioxide as a Contrast Medium

Author(s): Nikolaos Patelis*, Mikes Doulaptsis, Stylianos Kykalos, Eleftherios Spartalis, Anastasios Maskanakis and Sotirios Georgopoulos

Volume 25 , Issue 44 , 2019

Page: [4656 - 4661] Pages: 6

DOI: 10.2174/1381612825666191209124911

Price: $65


Background: Carbon dioxide (CO2) exists in nature around us. In the middle of the 20th century, the intraluminal injection of CO2 demonstrated similar results to those of Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) with an iodinated contrast agent (ICA). Since then, the technology behind CO2 DSA has developed significantly.

Objective: The aim of this study is to inform physicians about the unique properties of CO2 and its physiology after intraluminal injection.

Methods: An extensive search for English literature on the properties of CO2 and the physiology of intraluminal administration was conducted using Pubmed.

Results: There is sufficient literature on the properties of CO2 and the physiology of CO2 DSA. A review of this literature explains what happens to the human organism after the injection of CO2.

Conclusion: There is enough evidence that CO2 DSA is both effective, diagnostic and safe, but the properties of CO2 should be taken under consideration as complications occur, although rarely.

Keywords: Carbon dioxide, angiography, medical imaging, venography, digital subtraction angiography, English literature.

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