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Current Pharmaceutical Design


ISSN (Print): 1381-6128
ISSN (Online): 1873-4286

Review Article

Carbon Dioxide As a Standard of Care for Zero Contrast Interventions: When, Why and How?

Author(s): Theodosios Bisdas* and Stylianos Koutsias

Volume 25 , Issue 44 , 2019

Page: [4662 - 4666] Pages: 5

DOI: 10.2174/1381612825666191129093823

Price: $65


Background: Traditional contrast media containing iodine remain the gold standard for vessel visualization during endovascular procedures. On the other hand, their use has several side effects and implications and may cause contrast medium-induced nephropathy. Carbon dioxide (CO2) angiography is an old alternative technique used only for critical patients in order to prevent kidney damages or allergic reactions.

Zero contrast procedure: The availability of automated CO2 injectors has led to an increase in the use of CO2 angiography, providing an option for zero contrast interventions, preserving patient renal function and saving costs for the hospital facility. Taking advantage of the properties of CO2 gas, it is possible to improve the performance of some complex procedures such as atherectomy and the detection of type II endoleaks after EVARs. However, a learning curve is needed to get good imaging, and learn about the qualities and limitations of the technique.

Conclusions: The use of automatic delivery systems for CO2 angiography appears to be a good choice for the use of CO2 as the first imaging option. The standardization of injection protocols and the extensive use of this technique could lead to significant benefits both for the patient's prospects and health facilities.

Keywords: Contrast agents, automated carbon dioxide angiography, zero contrast procedure, contrast induced nephropathy, EVARs, atherectomy.

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