Generic placeholder image

Current Pharmaceutical Design


ISSN (Print): 1381-6128
ISSN (Online): 1873-4286

Review Article

Dietary Fish Oil Concentrates Associated Health Benefits: A Recent Development of Cardiovascular Risk Reduction

Author(s): Sudhanshu S. Behera*

Volume 25 , Issue 38 , 2019

Page: [4053 - 4062] Pages: 10

DOI: 10.2174/1381612825666191112141320

Price: $65


Fish oil is an abundant source of omega-3 (n-3 or ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and contains Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA). PUFAs are very effective in preventing/ inhibiting cardiovascular incidents, particularly in individuals with high cardiovascular risk/accidents. In this review, composition, extraction of fish oil and its favorable/beneficial effects in Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) and molecular mechanism for its treatment/reduction have been discussed. Moreover, the application of fish oil for preventive/protective and remedial/curative properties in nutritive and health benefits has been summarized. All these aspects further search the opportunities/hope and scope with its expected opening and anticipations/ possibilities to provide additional therapeutic substitutes for the reduction of CVDs and registration of new drugs.

Keywords: Fish oil, polyunsaturated fatty acid, cardiovascular disease, molecular mechanism, therapeutic substitutes, omega-3.

Musa-Veloso K, Binns MA, Kocenas A, et al. Impact of low v. moderate intakes of long-chain n-3 fatty acids on risk of coronary heart disease. Br J Nutr 2011; 106(8): 1129-41.
[] [PMID: 21736820]
Oravec S, Dukat A, Gavornik P, et al. Atherogenic versus non-atherogenic lipoprotein profiles in healthy individuals. Is there a need to change our approach to diagnosing dyslipidemia? Curr Med Chem 2014; 21(25): 2892-901.
[] [PMID: 24606516]
O’Keefe JH, Bell DS. Postprandial hyperglycemia/hyperlipidemia (postprandial dysmetabolism) is a cardiovascular risk factor. Am J Cardiol 2007; 100(5): 899-904.
[] [PMID: 17719342]
Barquera S, Pedroza-Tobías A, Medina C, et al. Global overview of the epidemiology of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Arch Med Res 2015; 46(5): 328-38.
[] [PMID: 26135634]
Sobukola OP, Olatunde SO. Effect of salting techniques on salt uptake and drying kinetics of african catfish (clarias gariepinus). Food Bioprod Process 2011; 89: 170-7.
D’Eliseo D, Velotti F. Omega-3 fatty acids and cancer cell cytotoxicity: implications for multi-targeted cancer therapy. J Clin Med 2016; 5(2): 15-27.
[] [PMID: 26821053]
Gil A, Gil F. Fish, a Mediterranean source of n-3 PUFA: benefits do not justify limiting consumption. Br J Nutr 2015; 113(Suppl. 2): S58-67.
[] [PMID: 26148923]
Echeverría F, Valenzuela R, Catalina Hernandez-Rodas M, Valenzuela A. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a fundamental fatty acid for the brain: New dietary sources. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2017; 124: 1-10.
[] [PMID: 28870371]
Decsi T, Campoy C, Koletzko B. Effect of N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in pregnancy: the nuheal trial in: early nutrition and its later consequences: new opportunities. Dordrecht: Springer 2005; pp. 109-13.
Haq M, Ahmed R, Cho YJ, et al. Quality properties and bio-potentiality of edible oils from atlantic salmon by-products extracted by supercritial carbon dioxide and conventional methods. Waste Biomass Valoriz 2017; 8: 1953-67.
Broadhurst CL, Cunnane SC, Crawford MA. Rift Valley lake fish and shellfish provided brain-specific nutrition for early Homo. Br J Nutr 1998; 79(1): 3-21.
[] [PMID: 9505798]
Birch EE, Garfield S, Hoffman DR, Uauy R, Birch DG. A randomized controlled trial of early dietary supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and mental development in term infants. Dev Med Child Neurol 2000; 42(3): 174-81.
[] [PMID: 10755457]
Bergmann RL, Haschke-Becher E, Klassen-Wigger P, et al. Supplementation with 200 mg/day docosahexaenoic acid from mid-pregnancy through lactation improves the docosahexaenoic acid status of mothers with a habitually low fish intake and of their infants. Ann Nutr Metab 2008; 52(2): 157-66.
[] [PMID: 18446020]
Zuyi L, Ward OP. Lipase-catalyzed alcoholysis to concentrate the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid of cod liver oil. Enzyme Microb Technol 1993; 15: 601-6.
Campoy C, Escolano-Margarit MV, Anjos T, Szajewska H, Uauy R. Omega 3 fatty acids on child growth, visual acuity and neurodevelopment. Br J Nutr 2012; 107(Suppl. 2): S85-S106.
[] [PMID: 22591907]
Sidhu KS. Health benefits and potential risks related to consumption of fish or fish oil. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2003; 38(3): 336-44.
[] [PMID: 14623484]
Venugopal V, Gopakumar K. Shellfish: nutritive value, health benefits, and consumer safety. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2017; 16: 1219-42.
Głowacz‐Różyńska A, Tynek M, Malinowska‐Pańczyk E, et al. Comparison of oil yield and quality obtained by different extraction procedures from salmon (salmo salar) processing byproducts. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 2016; 118: 1759-67.
Bonilla-Méndez JR, Hoyos-Concha JL. Methods of extraction refining and concentration of fish oil as a source of omega-3 fatty acids. Corpoica Cienc Tecnol Agropec 2018; 19: 645-68.
Ozyurt G, Ozkutuk AS, Ucar Y, et al. Fatty acid composition and oxidative stability of oils recovered from acid silage and bacterial fermentation of fish (Sea bass-dicentrarchus labrax) by‐products. Int J Food Sci Technol 2018; 53: 1255-61.
Senphan T, Benjakul S. Impact of enzymatic method using crude protease from Pacific white shrimp hepatopancreas on the extraction efficiency and compositions of lipids. Food Chem 2015; 166: 498-506.
[] [PMID: 25053086]
Deepika D, Vegneshwaran VR, Julia P, et al. Investigation on oil extraction methods and its influence on omega-3 content from cultured salmon. J Food Process Technol 2014; 5: 401-12.
Kien CL, Bunn JY, Poynter ME, et al. A lipidomics analysis of the relationship between dietary fatty acid composition and insulin sensitivity in young adults. Diabetes 2013; 62(4): 1054-63.
[] [PMID: 23238293]
Hibbeln JR, Davis JM, Steer C, et al. Maternal seafood consumption in pregnancy and neurodevelopmental outcomes in childhood (ALSPAC study): an observational cohort study. Lancet 2007; 369(9561): 578-85.
[] [PMID: 17307104]
Routray W, Dave D, Ramakrishnan VV, et al. Production of high quality fish oil by enzymatic protein hydrolysis from cultured Atlantic salmon by-products: investigation on effect of various extraction parameters using central composite rotatable design. Waste Biomass Valoriz 2018; 9(11): 1-12.
de Oliveira DA, Minozzo MG, Licodiedoff S, Waszczynskyj N. Physicochemical and sensory characterization of refined and deodorized tuna (Thunnus albacares) by-product oil obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis. Food Chem 2016; 207: 187-94.
[] [PMID: 27080896]
Kuo CH, Liao HZ, Wang YH, et al. Highly efficient extraction of EPA/DHA‐enriched oil from cobia liver using homogenization plus sonication. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 2017.1191600466
Nazir N, Diana A, Sayuti K. Physicochemical and fatty acid profile of fish oil from head of tuna (thunnus albacares) extracted from various extraction method. Int J Adv Sci Eng Inform Technol 2017; 7(2): 709-15.
Haq M, Park SK, Kim MJ, Cho YJ, Chun BS. Modifications of atlantic salmon by-product oil for obtaining different ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids concentrates: an approach to comparative analysis. Yao Wu Shi Pin Fen Xi 2018; 26(2): 545-56.
[] [PMID: 29567223]
Jackson PA, Reay JL, Scholey AB, Kennedy DO. Docosahexaenoic acid-rich fish oil modulates the cerebral hemodynamic response to cognitive tasks in healthy young adults. Biol Psychol 2012; 89(1): 183-90.
[] [PMID: 22020134]
Bucio SL, Solaesa ÁG, Sanz MT, Melgosa R, Beltrán S, Sovová H. Kinetic study for the ethanolysis of fish oil catalyzed by lipozyme(®) 435 in different reaction media. J Oleo Sci 2015; 64(4): 431-41.
[] [PMID: 25833453]
Casas-Godoy L, Meunchan M, Cot M, Duquesne S, Bordes F, Marty A. Yarrowia lipolytica lipase Lip2: an efficient enzyme for the production of concentrates of docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester. J Biotechnol 2014; 180: 30-6.
[] [PMID: 24657346]
Solaesa ÁG, Sanz MT, Beltrán S, et al. Kinetic study and kinetic parameters of lipase-catalyzed glycerolysis of sardine oil in a homogeneous medium. Chin J Catal 2016; 37: 596-606.
Okada T, Morrissey MT. Production of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrate from sardine oil by lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis. Food Chem 2007; 103: 1411-9.
Lee JE, Chang YH, Ganesan P, et al. Concentration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in cholesterol-reduced cod-liver oil by lipases. Int J Food Sci Technol 2011; 46: 1462-8.
Kahveci D, Xu X. Repeated hydrolysis process is effective for enrichment of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in salmon oil by Candida rugosa lipase. Food Chem 2011; 129: 1552-8.
Lee HJ, Haq M, Saravana PS, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids concentrate production by enzyme-catalyzed ethanolysis of supercritical CO2 extracted oyster oil. Biotechnol Bioproc E 2017; 22: 518-28.
Jump DB, Depner CM, Tripathy S. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and cardiovascular disease. J Lipid Res 2012; 53(12): 2525-45.
Adkins Y, Kelley DS. Mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Nutr Biochem 2010; 21(9): 781-92.
[] [PMID: 20382009]
Kinsella JE, Lokesh B, Stone RA. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and amelioration of cardiovascular disease: possible mechanisms. Am J Clin Nutr 1990; 52(1): 1-28.
[] [PMID: 2193500]
Givens DI, Kliem KE, Gibbs RA. The role of meat as a source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the human diet. Meat Sci 2006; 74(1): 209-18.
[] [PMID: 22062730]
Babajafari S, Moosavi-Nasab M, Nasrpour S, et al. Comparison of enzymatic hydrolysis and chemical methods for oil extraction from rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) waste and its influence on omega 3 fatty acid profile. Int J Nurs Sci 2017; 2: 58-65.
Appel LJ, Miller ER III, Seidler AJ, Whelton PK. Does supplementation of diet with ‘fish oil’ reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Arch Intern Med 1993; 153(12): 1429-38.
[] [PMID: 8141868]
Joensen AM, Overvad K, Dethlefsen C, et al. Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in adipose tissue and the risk of acute coronary syndrome. Circulation 2011; 124(11): 1232-8.
[] [PMID: 21859970]
Nestel P, Clifton P, Colquhoun D, et al. Indications for omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Heart Lung Circ 2015; 24(8): 769-79.
[] [PMID: 25936871]
Lands B. Benefit-risk assessment of fish oil in preventing cardiovascular disease. Drug Saf 2016; 39(9): 787-99.
[] [PMID: 27412006]
Viswakarma N, Jia Y, Bai L, et al. Coactivators in PPAR-regulated gene expression. PPAR Res 2010; 2010250126
[] [PMID: 20814439]
Schild RL, Sonnenberg-Hirche CM, Schaiff WT, Bildirici I, Nelson DM, Sadovsky Y. The kinase p38 regulates peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ in human trophoblasts. Placenta 2006; 27(2-3): 191-9.
[] [PMID: 16338464]
Ruebner M, Langbein M, Strissel PL, et al. Regulation of the human endogenous retroviral syncytin-1 and cell-cell fusion by the nuclear hormone receptors PPARγ/RXRα in placentogenesis. J Cell Biochem 2012; 113(7): 2383-96.
[] [PMID: 22573555]
Echeverría F, Ortiz M, Valenzuela R, Videla LA. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids regulation of PPARs, signaling: relationship to tissue development and aging. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2016; 114: 28-34.
[] [PMID: 27926461]
Zuyi L, Ward OP. Lipase-catalyzed alcoholysis to concentrate the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid of cod liver oil. Enzyme Microb Technol 1993; 15: 601-6.
Grimsgaard S, Bonaa KH, Hansen JB, Nordøy A. Highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in humans have similar triacylglycerol-lowering effects but divergent effects on serum fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 66(3): 649-59.
[] [PMID: 9280188]
Harris WS. n-3 fatty acids and serum lipoproteins: human studies. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 65(5)(Suppl.): S1645-54.
[] [PMID: 9129504]
Morris MC, Sacks F, Rosner B. Does fish oil lower blood pressure? A meta-analysis of controlled trials. Circulation 1993; 88(2): 523-33.
[] [PMID: 8339414]
Pepe S, McLennan PL. Dietary fish oil confers direct antiarrhythmic properties on the myocardium of rats. J Nutr 1996; 126(1): 34-42.
[] [PMID: 8558320]
Agren JJ, Väisänen S, Hänninen O, Muller AD, Hornstra G. Hemostatic factors and platelet aggregation after a fish-enriched diet or fish oil or docosahexaenoic acid supplementation. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1997; 57(4-5): 419-21.
[] [PMID: 9430389]
Valenzuela R, Videla LA. The importance of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid n-6/n-3 ratio in development of non-alcoholic fatty liver associated with obesity. Food Funct 2011; 2(11): 644-8.
[] [PMID: 22008843]
Streppel MT, Ocké MC, Boshuizen HC, Kok FJ, Kromhout D. Long-term fish consumption and n-3 fatty acid intake in relation to (sudden) coronary heart disease death: the zutphen study. Eur Heart J 2008; 29(16): 2024-30.
[] [PMID: 18641046]
Simopoulos AP. An increase in the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio increases the risk for obesity. Nutrients 2016; 8(3): 128.
[] [PMID: 26950145]
Araya J, Rodrigo R, Videla LA, et al. Increase in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid n - 6/n - 3 ratio in relation to hepatic steatosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Clin Sci (Lond) 2004; 106(6): 635-43.
[] [PMID: 14720121]
Barrera C, Valenzuela R, Chamorro R, et al. The impact of maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation on the fatty acid composition of erythrocytes and breast milk of chilean women. Nutrients 2018; 10(7): 839.
[] [PMID: 29958393]
Valenzuela R, Barrera C, Espinosa A, Llanos P, Orellana P, Videla LA. Reduction in the desaturation capacity of the liver in mice subjected to high fat diet: relation to LCPUFA depletion in liver and extrahepatic tissues. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2015; 98: 7-14.
[] [PMID: 25910408]
Kawarazuka N, Béné C. The potential role of small fish species in improving micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries: building evidence. Public Health Nutr 2011; 14(11): 1927-38.
[] [PMID: 21729489]
Glück T, Alter P. Marine omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids: from mechanisms to clinical implications in heart failure and arrhythmias. Vascul Pharmacol 2016; 82: 11-9.
[] [PMID: 27080538]
Lands B. Benefit-risk assessment of fish oil in preventing cardiovascular disease. Drug Saf 2016; 39(9): 787-99.
[] [PMID: 27412006]
Leung Yinko SS, Stark KD, Thanassoulis G, Pilote L. Fish consumption and acute coronary syndrome: a meta-analysis Am J Med 2014; 127(9): 848-57: e2.
[] [PMID: 24802020]
Kromhout D, Giltay EJ, Geleijnse JM. Alpha omega trial group. n-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular events after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 2010; 363(21): 2015-26.
[] [PMID: 20929341]
Sahena F, Zaidul ISM, Jinap S, et al. Extraction of fish oil from the skin of Indian mackerel using supercritical fluids. J Food Eng 2010; 99: 63-9.
Nguyen HTM, Sylla KSB, Randriamahatody Z, et al. Enzymatic hydrolysis of yellowfin tuna (thunnus albacares) by-products using protamex protease. Food Technol Biotechnol 2011; 49: 48-58.
Fiori L, Solana M, Tosi P, Manfrini M, Strim C, Guella G. Lipid profiles of oil from trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) heads, spines and viscera: trout by-products as a possible source of omega-3 lipids? Food Chem 2012; 134(2): 1088-95.
[] [PMID: 23107732]
Lopes BL, Sánchez-Camargo AP, Ferreira AL, et al. Selectivity of supercritical carbon dioxide in the fractionation of fish oil with a lower content of EPA+ DHA. J Supercrit Fluids 2012; 61: 78-85.
Huong NTM. Protein and lipid recovery from tuna head using industrial protease. J Sci Dev 2013; 11: 1150-8.
Bako T, Umogbai VI, Obetta SE. Extraction and characterization of Mackery (scomber scombrus) oil for industrial use. Researcher 2014; 6: 80-5.
Menegazzo ML, Petenuci ME, Fonseca GG. Production and characterization of crude and refined oils obtained from the co-products of nile tilapia and hybrid sorubim processing. Food Chem 2014; 157: 100-4.
[] [PMID: 24679757]
Chakraborty K, Joseph D. Cooking and pressing is an effective and eco‐friendly technique for obtaining high quality oil from sardinella longiceps. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 2015; 117: 837-50.
Hao S, Wei Y, Li L, et al. The effects of different extraction methods on composition and storage stability of sturgeon oil. Food Chem 2015; 173: 274-82.
[] [PMID: 25466023]
Honold PJ, Nouard ML, Jacobsen C. Fish oil extracted from fish-fillet by-products is weakly linked to the extraction temperatures but strongly linked to the omega‐3 content of the raw material. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 2016; 118: 874-84.
Chaijan M, Jongjareonrak A, Phatcharat S, et al. Chemical compositions and characteristics of farm raised giant catfish (pangasianodon gigas) muscle. Lebensm Wiss Technol 2010; 43: 452-7.
Hao S, Wei Y, Li L, et al. The effects of different extraction methods on composition and storage stability of sturgeon oil. Food Chem 2015; 173: 274-82.
[] [PMID: 29567223]
Guo Y, Huang WC, Wu Y, et al. Application of a low-voltage direct-current electric field for lipid extraction from squid viscera. J Clean Prod 2018; 205: 610-8.
Itakura H, Yokoyama M, Matsuzaki M, et al. JELIS Investigators. Relationships between plasma fatty acid composition and coronary artery disease. J Atheroscler Thromb 2011; 18(2): 99-107.
[] [PMID: 21099130]
Bosch J, Gerstein HC, Dagenais GR, et al. ORIGIN Trial Investigators. n-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with dysglycemia. N Engl J Med 2012; 367(4): 309-18.
[] [PMID: 22686415]
Roncaglioni MC, Tombesi M, Avanzini F, et al. Risk and prevention study collaborative group. n-3 fatty acids in patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. N Engl J Med 2013; 368(19): 1800-8.
[] [PMID: 23656645]
de Goede J, Geleijnse JM, Boer JM, Kromhout D, Verschuren WM. Marine (n-3) fatty acids, fish consumption, and the 10-year risk of fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease in a large population of dutch adults with low fish intake. J Nutr 2010; 140(5): 1023-8.
[] [PMID: 20335635]
Jiang W, Whellan DJ, Adams KF, et al. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acid supplements in depressed heart failure patients: results of the OCEAN trial. JACC Heart Fail 2018; 6(10): 833-43.
[] [PMID: 30098961]

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2022 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy