Aging is characterized by a general decline in a range of physiological functions, with a consequent increase in the risk of developing a variety of chronic diseases and geriatric syndromes. Additionally, increasing age is accompanied by a progressive decline in both innate and acquired immune system, referred to as immunosenescence. This impaired ability to mount an efficient immune response after exposure to microorganisms or vaccines represents a major challenge in acquiring protection against pathogens in aging. Therefore, there is still a great need for vaccines that are tailored to optimally stimulate the aged immune system, thus promoting more successful aging. Various strategies can be used to improve vaccine efficacy in old people. Despite this, metaanalyses have clearly shown that the magnitude of protection obtained remains lower in older adults. Recent studies show that stimulation of Toll-like receptors, using stimulatory ligands, can enhance vaccine efficacy by a number of mechanisms, including the activation of innate immune cells and the consequent production of inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, a possible strategy for more effective vaccination in the older population is the triggering of multiple TLRs, using a combined adjuvant for the synergistic activation of cellular immunity. Preliminary in vitro data suggest that in humans the presence of multiple TLR agonists can result in the greater stimulation of antigen-specific immune responses in immune cells both in the young healthy and in the immune senescent older donors. These data suggest that appropriately selected combinations of TLR agonists could enhance the efficacy of vaccination mediated immunity in older people.
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