Generic placeholder image

Current Radiopharmaceuticals


ISSN (Print): 1874-4710
ISSN (Online): 1874-4729

Review Article

Malignant Cutaneous Melanoma: Updates in PET Imaging

Author(s): Riccardo Laudicella*, Lucia Baratto, Fabio Minutoli, Sergio Baldari and Andrei Iagaru

Volume 13, Issue 1, 2020

Page: [14 - 23] Pages: 10

DOI: 10.2174/1874471012666191015095550

Price: $65


Background: Cutaneous malignant melanoma is a neoplasm whose incidence and mortality are dramatically increasing. 18F-FDG PET/CT gained clinical acceptance over the past 2 decades in the evaluation of several glucose-avid neoplasms, including malignant melanoma, particularly for the assessment for distant metastases, recurrence and response to therapy.

Objective: To describe the advancements of nuclear medicine for imaging melanoma with particular attention to 18F-FDG-PET and its current state-of-the-art technical innovations.

Methods: A comprehensive search strategy was used based on SCOPUS and PubMed databases. From all studies published in English, we selected the articles that evaluated the technological insights of 18FFDG- PET in the assessment of melanoma.

Results: State-of-the-art silicon photomultipliers based detectors (“digital”) PET/CT scanners are nowadays more common, showing technical innovations that may have beneficial implications for patients with melanoma. Steady improvements in detectors design and architecture, as well as the implementation of both software and hardware technology (i.e., TOF, point spread function, etc.), resulted in significant improvements in PET image quality while reducing radiotracer dose and scanning time.

Conclusion: Recently introduced digital PET detector technology in PET/CT and PET/MRI yields higher intrinsic system sensitivity compared with the latest generation analog technology, enabling the detection of very small lesions with potential impact on disease outcome.

Keywords: Melanoma, PET/CT, TOF, digital PET, BSREM, CBM, breath hold, PET/MRI.

Graphical Abstract
Little, E.G.; Eide, M.J. Update on the current state of melanoma incidence. Dermatol. Clin., 2012, 30(3), 355-361.
[] [PMID: 22800543]
Siegel, R.L.; Miller, K.D.; Jemal, A. Cancer statistics, 2018. CA Cancer J. Clin., 2018, 68(1), 7-30.
[] [PMID: 29313949]
Gershenwald, J.E.; Scolyer, R.A.; Hess, K.R.; Sondak, V.K.; Long, G.V.; Ross, M.I.; Lazar, A.J.; Faries, M.B.; Kirkwood, J.M.; McArthur, G.A.; Haydu, L.E.; Eggermont, A.M.M.; Flaherty, K.T.; Balch, C.M.; Thompson, J.F. Melanoma staging: Evidence-based changes in the American Joint Committee on Cancer eighth edition cancer staging manual CA Cancer J. Clin;,, 2017, 67(6), 472-492.
Mohr, P.; Eggermont, A.M.; Hauschild, A.; Buzaid, A. Staging of cutaneous melanoma. Ann. Oncol., 2009, 20(Suppl. 6), vi14-vi21.
[] [PMID: 19617293]
Bichakjian, C.K.; Halpern, A.C.; Johnson, T.M.; Foote Hood, A.; Grichnik, J.M.; Swetter, S.M.; Tsao, H.; Barbosa, V.H.; Chuang, T.Y.; Duvic, M.; Ho, V.C.; Sober, A.J.; Beutner, K.R.; Bhushan, R.; Smith Begolka, W. American Academy of Dermatology. Guidelines of care for the management of primary cutaneous melanoma. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol., 2011, 65(5), 1032-1047.
[] [PMID: 21868127]
Dickson, P.V.; Gershenwald, J.E. Staging and prognosis of cutaneous melanoma. Surg. Oncol. Clin. N. Am., 2011, 20(1), 1-17.
[] [PMID: 21111956]
Bourgeois, A.C.; Chang, T.T.; Fish, L.M.; Bradley, Y.C. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography in melanoma. Radiol. Clin. North Am., 2013, 51(5), 865-879.
[] [PMID: 24010910]
Curtin, J.A.; Fridlyand, J.; Kageshita, T.; Patel, H.N.; Busam, K.J.; Kutzner, H.; Cho, K.H.; Aiba, S.; Bröcker, E.B.; LeBoit, P.E.; Pinkel, D.; Bastian, B.C. Distinct sets of genetic alterations in melanoma. N. Engl. J. Med., 2005, 353(20), 2135-2147.
[] [PMID: 16291983]
Curtin, J.A.; Busam, K.; Pinkel, D.; Bastian, B.C. Somatic activation of KIT in distinct subtypes of melanoma. J. Clin. Oncol., 2006, 24(26), 4340-4346.
[] [PMID: 16908931]
Melanoma, version 1.2018. In:NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology. Fort Washington, PA: National Comprehensive Cancer Network, 2017. Available from:..
Dummer, R.; Pittelkow, M.R.; Iwatsuki, K.; Green, A.; Elwan, N.M. Skin cancer: a world-wide perspective; Springer: Berlin, Germany, 2011, pp. 307-342.
Ross, M.I.; Gershenwald, J.E. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma: a critical update for dermatologists after two decades of experience. Clin. Dermatol., 2013, 31(3), 298-310.
[] [PMID: 23608449]
Gershenwald, J.E.; Thompson, W.; Mansfield, P.F.; Lee, J.E.; Colome, M.I.; Tseng, C.H.; Lee, J.J.; Balch, C.M.; Reintgen, D.S.; Ross, M.I. Multi-institutional melanoma lymphatic mapping experience: the prognostic value of sentinel lymph node status in 612 stage I or II melanoma patients. J. Clin. Oncol., 1999, 17(3), 976-983.
[] [PMID: 10071292]
Jimenez-Heffernan, A.; Ellmann, A.; Sado, H.; Huić, D.; Bal, C.; Parameswaran, R.; Giammarile, F.; Pruzzo, R.; Kostadinova, I.; Vorster, M.; Almeida, P.; Santiago, J.; Gambhir, S.; Sergieva, S.; Calderon, A.; Young, G.O.; Valdes-Olmos, R.; Zaknun, J.; Magboo, V.P.; Pascual, T.N. Results of a Prospective Multicenter International Atomic Energy Agency Sentinel Node Trial on the Value of SPECT/CT Over Planar Imaging in Various Malignancies. J. Nucl. Med., 2015, 56(9), 1338-1344.
[] [PMID: 26229148]
Meier, F.; Will, S.; Ellwanger, U.; Schlagenhauff, B.; Schittek, B.; Rassner, G.; Garbe, C. Metastatic pathways and time courses in the orderly progression of cutaneous melanoma. Br. J. Dermatol., 2002, 147(1), 62-70.
[] [PMID: 12100186]
Balch, C.M.; Soong, S.J.; Gershenwald, J.E.; Thompson, J.F.; Reintgen, D.S.; Cascinelli, N.; Urist, M.; McMasters, K.M.; Ross, M.I.; Kirkwood, J.M.; Atkins, M.B.; Thompson, J.A.; Coit, D.G.; Byrd, D.; Desmond, R.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, P.Y.; Lyman, G.H.; Morabito, A. Prognostic factors analysis of 17,600 melanoma patients: validation of the American Joint Committee on Cancer melanoma staging system. J. Clin. Oncol., 2001, 19(16), 3622-3634.
[] [PMID: 11504744]
Leiter, U.; Meier, F.; Schittek, B.; Garbe, C. The natural course of cutaneous melanoma. J. Surg. Oncol., 2004, 86(4), 172-178.
[] [PMID: 15221923]
Mooney, M.M.; Kulas, M.; McKinley, B.; Michalek, A.M.; Kraybill, W.G. Impact on survival by method of recurrence detection in stage I and II cutaneous melanoma. Ann. Surg. Oncol., 1998, 5(1), 54-63.
[] [PMID: 9524709]
Kim, J.W.; Dang, C.V. Cancer’s molecular sweet tooth and the Warburg effect. Cancer Res., 2006, 66(18), 8927-8930.
[] [PMID: 16982728]
Alavi, A.; Reivich, M. Guest editorial: the conception of FDG-PET imaging. Semin. Nucl. Med., 2002, 32(1), 2-5.
[] [PMID: 11839067]
Tagliabue, L.; Del Sole, A. Appropriate use of positron emission tomography with [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose for staging of oncology patients. Eur. J. Intern. Med., 2014, 25(1), 6-11.
[] [PMID: 23910561]
Kelloff, G.J.; Hoffman, J.M.; Johnson, B.; Scher, H.I.; Siegel, B.A.; Cheng, E.Y.; Cheson, B.D.; O’shaughnessy, J.; Guyton, K.Z.; Mankoff, D.A.; Shankar, L.; Larson, S.M.; Sigman, C.C.; Schilsky, R.L.; Sullivan, D.C. Progress and promise of FDG-PET imaging for cancer patient management and oncologic drug development. Clin. Cancer Res., 2005, 11(8), 2785-2808.
[] [PMID: 15837727]
Perissinotti, A.; Rietbergen, D.D.; Vidal-Sicart, S.; Riera, A.A.; Olmos, R.A.V. Melanoma & nuclear medicine: new insights & advances. Melanoma Manag., 2018, 5(1), MMT06.
[] [PMID: 30190932]
Belhocine, T.Z.; Scott, A.M.; Even-Sapir, E.; Urbain, J.L.; Essner, R. Role of nuclear medicine in the management of cutaneous malignant melanoma. J. Nucl. Med., 2006, 47(6), 957-967.
[PMID: 16741305]
Petersen, H.; Holdgaard, P.C.; Madsen, P.H.; Knudsen, L.M.; Gad, D.; Gravergaard, A.E.; Rohde, M.; Godballe, C.; Engelmann, B.E.; Bech, K.; Teilmann-Jørgensen, D.; Mogensen, O.; Karstoft, J.; Johansen, J.; Christensen, J.B.; Johansen, A.; Høilund-Carlsen, P.F. PET/CT Task Force of the Region of Southern Denmark. FDG PET/CT in cancer: comparison of actual use with literature-based recommendations. Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging, 2016, 43(4), 695-706.
[] [PMID: 26519292]
Balch, C.M.; Gershenwald, J.E.; Soong, S.J.; Thompson, J.F.; Atkins, M.B.; Byrd, D.R.; Buzaid, A.C.; Cochran, A.J.; Coit, D.G.; Ding, S.; Eggermont, A.M.; Flaherty, K.T.; Gimotty, P.A.; Kirkwood, J.M.; McMasters, K.M.; Mihm, M.C., Jr; Morton, D.L.; Ross, M.I.; Sober, A.J.; Sondak, V.K. Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification. J. Clin. Oncol., 2009, 27(36), 6199-6206.
[] [PMID: 19917835]
Horn, J.; Sjøstrand, H.; Lock-Andersen, J.; Loft, A. [PET scanning for malignant melanoma and positive sentinel node diagnostics]. Ugeskr. Laeger, 2010, 172(15), 1126-1130.
[PMID: 20427004]
Aukema, T.S.; Valdés Olmos, R.A.; Wouters, M.W.; Klop, W.M.; Kroon, B.B.; Vogel, W.V.; Nieweg, O.E. Utility of preoperative 18F-FDG PET/CT and brain MRI in melanoma patients with palpable lymph node metastases. Ann. Surg. Oncol., 2010, 17(10), 2773-2778.
[] [PMID: 20422454]
Bastiaannet, E.; Wobbes, T.; Hoekstra, O.S.; van der Jagt, E.J.; Brouwers, A.H.; Koelemij, R.; de Klerk, J.M.; Oyen, W.J.; Meijer, S.; Hoekstra, H.J. Prospective comparison of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography in patients with melanoma with palpable lymph node metastases: diagnostic accuracy and impact on treatment. J. Clin. Oncol., 2009, 27(28), 4774-4780.
[] [PMID: 19720925]
Fuster, D.; Chiang, S.; Johnson, G.; Schuchter, L.M.; Zhuang, H.; Alavi, A. Is 18F-FDG PET more accurate than standard diagnostic procedures in the detection of suspected recurrent melanoma? J. Nucl. Med., 2004, 45(8), 1323-1327.
[PMID: 15299056]
Wieder, H.A.; Tekin, G.; Rosenbaum-Krumme, S.; Klode, J.; Altenbernd, J.; Bockisch, A.; Nagarajah, J. 18FDG-PET to assess recurrence and long term survival in patients with malignant melanoma. Nucl. Med. (Stuttg.), 2013, 52(5), 198-203.
[] [PMID: 23969722]
Reinhardt, M.J.; Joe, A.Y.; Jaeger, U.; Huber, A.; Matthies, A.; Bucerius, J.; Roedel, R.; Strunk, H.; Bieber, T.; Biersack, H.J.; Tüting, T. Diagnostic performance of whole body dual modality 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging for N- and M-staging of malignant melanoma: experience with 250 consecutive patients J. Clin. Oncol,, 2006, 24(7), 1178-87.0.
Wahl, R.L.; Jacene, H.; Kasamon, Y.; Lodge, M.A. From RECIST to PERCIST: Evolving Considerations for PET response criteria in solid tumors. J. Nucl. Med., 2009, 50(Suppl. 1), 122S-150S.
[] [PMID: 19403881]
Hicks, R.J. The role of PET in monitoring therapy. Cancer Imaging, 2005, 5, 51-57.
[] [PMID: 16154820]
Hofman, M.S.; Constantinidou, A.; Acland, K.; Healy, C.; Harries, M.; O’Doherty, M. Melanoma Group.Assessing response to chemotherapy in metastatic melanoma with FDG PET: Early experience. Nucl. Med. Commun., 2007, 28(12), 902-906.
[] [PMID: 18090215]
Strobel, K.; Dummer, R.; Steinert, H.C.; Conzett, K.B.; Schad, K.; Lago, M.P.; Soyka, J.D.; Veit-Haibach, P.; Seifert, B.; Kalff, V. Chemotherapy response assessment in stage IV melanoma patients-comparison of 18F-FDG-PET/CT, CT, brain MRI, and tumormarker S-100B. Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging, 2008, 35(10), 1786-1795.
[] [PMID: 18458901]
Beasley, G.M.; Parsons, C.; Broadwater, G.; Selim, M.A.; Marzban, S.; Abernethy, A.P.; Salama, A.K.; Eikman, E.A.; Wong, T.; Zager, J.S.; Tyler, D.S. A multicenter prospective evaluation of the clinical utility of F-18 FDG-PET/CT in patients with AJCC stage IIIB or IIIC extremity melanoma. Ann. Surg., 2012, 256(2), 350-356.
[] [PMID: 22691370]
Kraeber-Bodéré, F.; Carlier, T.; Naegelen, V.M.; Shochat, E.; Lumbroso, J.; Trampal, C.; Nagarajah, J.; Chua, S.; Hugonnet, F.; Stokkel, M.; Gleeson, F.; Tessier, J. Differences in the biologic activity of 2 novel MEK inhibitors revealed by 18F-FDG PET: analysis of imaging data from 2 phase I trials. J. Nucl. Med., 2012, 53(12), 1836-1846.
[] [PMID: 23143089]
Wong, A.N.M.; McArthur, G.A.; Hofman, M.S.; Hicks, R.J. The Advantages and Challenges of Using FDG PET/CT for Response Assessment in Melanoma in the Era of Targeted Agents and Immunotherapy. Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging, 2017, 44(Suppl. 1), 67-77.
[] [PMID: 28389693]
von Schulthess, G.K.; Steinert, H.C.; Hany, T.F. Integrated PET/CT: current applications and future directions. Radiology, 2006, 238(2), 405-422.
[] [PMID: 16436809]
Tejera-Vaquerizo, A.; Barrera-Vigo, M.V.; Fernández-Canedo, I.; Blázquez-Sánchez, N.; Mendiola-Fernández, M.; Fernández-Orland, A.; Bosch-García, R.; de Troya-Martín, M.; Herrera-Ceballos, E. [Longitudinal study of different metastatic patterns in the progression of cutaneous melanoma]. Actas Dermosifiliogr., 2007, 98(8), 531-538.
[] [PMID: 17919427]
Marcoval, J.; Ferreres, J.R.; Martín, C.; Gómez, S.; Penín, R.M.; Ochoa de Olza, M.; Fabra, Á. Patterns of visceral metastasis in cutaneous melanoma: a descriptive study. Actas Dermosifiliogr., 2013, 104(7), 593-597.
[] [PMID: 23876678]
Schouten, L.J.; Rutten, J.; Huveneers, H.A.; Twijnstra, A. Incidence of brain metastases in a cohort of patients with carcinoma of the breast, colon, kidney, and lung and melanoma. Cancer, 2002, 94(10), 2698-2705.
[] [PMID: 12173339]
Barnholtz-Sloan, J.S.; Sloan, A.E.; Davis, F.G.; Vigneau, F.D.; Lai, P.; Sawaya, R.E. Incidence proportions of brain metastases in patients diagnosed (1973 to 2001) in the Metropolitan Detroit Cancer Surveillance System. J. Clin. Oncol., 2004, 22(14), 2865-2872.
[] [PMID: 15254054]
Gavrilovic, I.T.; Posner, J.B. Brain metastases: epidemiology and pathophysiology. J. Neurooncol., 2005, 75(1), 5-14.
[] [PMID: 16215811]
Sebro, R.; Mari-Aparici, C.; Hernandez-Pampaloni, M. Value of true whole-body FDG-PET/CT scanning protocol in oncology: optimization of its use based on primary diagnosis. Acta Radiol., 2013, 54(5), 534-539.
[] [PMID: 23463863]
Kawata, S.; Imaizumi, M.; Kako, Y.; Oku, N. Clinical impact of “true whole-body” (18)F-FDG PET/CT: lesion frequency and added benefit in distal lower extremities. Ann. Nucl. Med., 2014, 28(4), 322-328.
[] [PMID: 24488705]
Nguyen, N.C.; Chaar, B.T.; Osman, M.M. Prevalence and patterns of soft tissue metastasis: detection with true whole-body F-18 FDG PET/CT. BMC Med. Imaging, 2007, 7, 8.
[] [PMID: 18076764]
Ishimori, T.; Patel, P.V.; Wahl, R.L. Detection of unexpected additional primary malignancies with PET/CT. J. Nucl. Med., 2005, 46(5), 752-757.
[PMID: 15872346]
Osman, M.M.; Chaar, B.T.; Muzaffar, R.; Oliver, D.; Reimers, H.J.; Walz, B.; Nguyen, N.C. 18F-FDG PET/CT of patients with cancer: comparison of whole-body and limited whole-body technique. AJR Am. J. Roentgenol., 2010, 195(6), 1397-1403.
[] [PMID: 21098201]
Tasdemir, B.; Dostbil, Z.; Inal, A.; Unal, K.; Yildirim, S.; Simsek, F.S. Evaluation of clinical contributions provided by addition of the brain, calvarium, and scalp to the limited whole body imaging area in FDG-PET/CT tumor imaging. BioMed Res. Int., 2014.2014129683
[] [PMID: 25025032]
Löffler, M.; Weckesser, M.; Franzius, Ch.; Nashan, D.; Schober, O. Malignant melanoma and (18)F-FDG-PET: Should the whole body scan include the legs? Nucl. Med. (Stuttg.), 2003, 42(4), 167-172.
[] [PMID: 12937695]
Querellou, S.; Keromnes, N.; Abgral, R.; Sassolas, B.; Le Roux, P.Y.; Cavarec, M.B.; Le Duc-Pennec, A.; Couturier, O.; Salaun, P.Y. Clinical and therapeutic impact of 18F-FDG PET/CT whole-body acquisition including lower limbs in patients with malignant melanoma. Nucl. Med. Commun., 2010, 31(9), 766-772.
[] [PMID: 20585271]
Tan, J.C.; Chatterton, B.E. Is there an added clinical value of “true”whole body(18)F-FDG PET/CT imaging in patients with malignant melanoma? Hell. J. Nucl. Med., 2012, 15(3), 202-205.
[PMID: 23106051]
Plouznikoff, N.; Arsenault, F. Clinical relevance of 18F-FDG PET/CT lower-limb imaging in patients with malignant cutaneous melanoma. Nucl. Med. Commun., 2017, 38(12), 1103-1108.
[] [PMID: 28885538]
Lazaga, F.J.; Oz, O.K.; Adams-Huet, B.; Anderson, J.; Mathews, D. Comparison of whole-body versus limited whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT scan in malignant cutaneous melanoma. Clin. Nucl. Med., 2013, 38(11), 882-884.
[] [PMID: 24096999]
Niederkohr, R.D.; Rosenberg, J.; Shabo, G.; Quon, A. Clinical value of including the head and lower extremities in 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging for patients with malignant melanoma. Nucl. Med. Commun., 2007, 28(9), 688-695.
[] [PMID: 17667747]
The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. ICRP publication 103. Ann. ICRP, 2007, 37(2-4), 1-332.
[PMID: 18082557]
Weber, W.A. Positron emission tomography as an imaging biomarker. J. Clin. Oncol., 2006, 24(20), 3282-3291.
Larson, S.M.; Schwartz, L.H. 18F-FDG PET as a candidate for “qualified biomarker”: functional assessment of treatment response in oncology. J. Nucl. Med., 2006, 74(6), 901-903.
Thie, J.A.; Hubner, K.F.; Smith, G.T. Optimizing imaging time for improved performance in oncology PET studies. Mol. Imaging Biol., 2002, 4(3), 238-244.
Schoder, H.; Erdi, Y.E.; Chao, K.; Gonen, M.; Larson, S.M.; Yeung, H.W. Clinical implications of different image reconstruction parameters for interpretation of whole-body PET studies in cancer patients-comparison. J. Nucl. Med., 2004, 45(4), 559-566.
El Fakhri, G.; Surti, S.; Trott, C.M.; Scheuermann, J.; Karp, J.S. Improvement in lesion detection with whole-body oncologic time-of-flight PET. J. Nucl. Med., 2011, 52(3), 347-353.
[] [PMID: 21321265]
Thompson, H.M.; Minamimoto, R.; Jamali, M.; Barkhodari, A.; von Eyben, R.; Iagaru, A.A. Prospective, Matched Comparison Study of SUV Measurements From Time-of-Flight Versus Non-Time-of-Flight PET/CT Scanners. Clin. Nucl. Med., 2016, 41(7), e323-e326.
[] [PMID: 26914563]
Nguyen, N.C.; Vercher-Conejero, J.L.; Sattar, A.; Miller, M.A.; Maniawski, P.J.; Jordan, D.W.; Muzic, R.F., Jr; Su, K.H.; O’Donnell, J.K.; Faulhaber, P.F. Image Quality and Diagnostic Performance of a Digital PET Prototype in Patients with Oncologic Diseases: Initial Experience and Comparison with Analog PET. J. Nucl. Med., 2015, 56(9), 1378-1385.
[] [PMID: 26159588]
Karp, J.S.; Surti, S.; Daube-Witherspoon, M.E.; Muehllehner, G. Benefit of time-of-flight in PET: experimental and clinical results. J. Nucl. Med., 2008, 49(3), 462-470.
[] [PMID: 18287269]
Degenhardt, C.; Prescher, G.; Frach, T. The digital silicon photomultiplier: a novel sensor for the detection of scintillation light; IEEE Nucl. Sci. Conf. R., 2009, pp. 2383-2386.
Frach, T.; Prescher, G.; Degenhardt, C.; de Gruyter, R.; Schmitz, A.; Ballizany, R. The digital silicon photomultiplier: principle of operation and intrinsic detector performance; IEEE Nucl. Sci. Conf. R., 2009, pp. 1959-1965.
Degenhardt, C.; Rodrigues, P.; Trindade, A. Performance evaluation of a prototype positron emission tomography scanner using digital photon counters (DPC); IEEE Nucl. Sci. Symp. Med. Imaging Conf. Rec, 2012, pp. 2820-2824.
Baratto, L.; Park, S.Y.; Hatami, N.; Davidzon, G.; Srinivas, S.; Gambhir, S.S.; Iagaru, A. 18F-FDG silicon photomultiplier PET/CT: A pilot study comparing semi-quantitative measurements with standard PET/CT. PLoS One, 2017, 12(6)e0178936
[] [PMID: 28582472]
Hsu, D.F.C.; Ilan, E.; Peterson, W.T.; Uribe, J.; Lubberink, M.; Levin, C.S. Studies of a Next-Generation Silicon-Photomultiplier-Based Time-of-Flight PET/CT System. J. Nucl. Med., 2017, 58(9), 1511-1518.
[] [PMID: 28450566]
Aljared, A.; Alharbi, A.A.; Huellner, M.W. BSREM Reconstruction for Improved Detection of In-Transit Metastases With Digital FDG-PET/CT in Patients With Malignant Melanoma. Clin. Nucl. Med., 2018, 43(5), 370-371.
[] [PMID: 29485444]
Read, R.L.; Haydu, L.; Saw, R.P.; Quinn, M.J.; Shannon, K.; Spillane, A.J.; Stretch, J.R.; Scolyer, R.A.; Thompson, J.F. In-transit melanoma metastases: incidence, prognosis, and the role of lymphadenectomy. Ann. Surg. Oncol., 2015, 22(2), 475-481.
[] [PMID: 25256128]
Jones, T.; Townsend, D. History and future technical innovation in positron emission tomography. J. Med. Imaging (Bellingham), 2017, 4(1)011013
[] [PMID: 28401173]
Osborne, D.R.; Acuff, S.; Cruise, S.; Syed, M.; Neveu, M.; Stuckey, A.; Bradley, Y. Quantitative and qualitative comparison of continuous bed motion and traditional step and shoot PET/CT. Am. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging, 2014, 5(1), 56-64.
[PMID: 25625027]
Schatka, I.; Weiberg, D.; Reichelt, S.; Owsianski-Hille, N.; Derlin, T.; Berding, G.; Bengel, F.M. A randomized, double-blind, crossover comparison of novel continuous bed motion versus traditional bed position whole-body PET/CT imaging. Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging, 2016, 43(4), 711-717.
[] [PMID: 26546010]
Rausch, I.; Cal-González, J.; Dapra, D.; Gallowitsch, H.J.; Lind, P.; Beyer, T.; Minear, G. Performance evaluation of the Biograph mCT Flow PET/CT system according to the NEMA NU2-2012 standard. EJNMMI Phys., 2015, 2(1), 26.
[] [PMID: 26501827]
Acuff, S.N.; Osborne, D. Clinical Workflow Considerations for Implementation of Continuous-Bed-Motion PET/CT. J. Nucl. Med. Technol., 2016, 44(2), 55-58.
[] [PMID: 27102661]
Tyler, D.S.; Onaitis, M.; Kherani, A.; Hata, A.; Nicholson, E.; Keogan, M.; Fisher, S.; Coleman, E.; Seigler, H.F. Positron emission tomography scanning in malignant melanoma. Cancer, 2000, 89(5), 1019-1025.
[<1019:AID-CNCR11>3.0.CO;2-0] [PMID: 10964332]
Acuff, S.; Bradley, Y.; Stuckey, A.; Osborne, D. PET/CT gating workflow efficiency improvements using continuous bed motion imaging techniques.[abstract] J. Nucl. Med., 2015, 56(Suppl. 3), 2628.
Papathanassiou, D.; Liehn, J.C.; Bourgeot, B.; Amir, R.; Marcus, C. Cesium attenuation correction of the liver dome revealing hepatic lesion missed with computed tomography attenuation correction because of the respiratory motion artifact. Clin. Nucl. Med., 2005, 30(2), 120-121.
[] [PMID: 15647684]
Nehmeh, S.A.; Erdi, Y.E.; Ling, C.C.; Rosenzweig, K.E.; Schoder, H.; Larson, S.M.; Macapinlac, H.A.; Squire, O.D.; Humm, J.L. Effect of respiratory gating on quantifying PET images of lung cancer. J. Nucl. Med., 2002, 43(7), 876-881.
[PMID: 12097456]
Kawano, T.; Ohtake, E.; Inoue, T. Deep-inspiration breath-hold PET/CT versus free breathing PET/CT and respiratory gating PET for reference: evaluation in 95 patients with lung cancer. Ann. Nucl. Med., 2011, 25(2), 109-116.
[] [PMID: 21080119]
Werner, M.K.; Parker, J.A.; Kolodny, G.M.; English, J.R.; Palmer, M.R. Respiratory gating enhances imaging of pulmonary nodules and measurement of tracer uptake in FDG PET/CT. AJR Am. J. Roentgenol., 2009, 193(6), 1640-1645.
[] [PMID: 19933659]
Pépin, A.; Daouk, J.; Bailly, P.; Hapdey, S.; Meyer, M.E. Management of respiratory motion in PET/computed tomography: the state of the art. Nucl. Med. Commun., 2014, 35(2), 113-122.
[] [PMID: 24352107]
Meirelles, G.S.; Erdi, Y.E.; Nehmeh, S.A.; Squire, O.D.; Larson, S.M.; Humm, J.L.; Schöder, H. Deep-inspiration breath-hold PET/CT: clinical findings with a new technique for detection and characterization of thoracic lesions. J. Nucl. Med., 2007, 48(5), 712-719.
[] [PMID: 17475958]
Bärwolf, R.; Zirnsak, M.; Freesmeyer, M. Breath-hold and free-breathing F-18-FDG-PET/CT in malignant melanoma-detection of additional tumoral foci and effects on quantitative parameters. Medicine (Baltimore), 2017, 96(2)e5882
[] [PMID: 28079829]
Nakai, T.; Okuyama, C.; Kubota, T.; Yamada, K.; Ushijima, Y.; Taniike, K.; Suzuki, T.; Nishimura, T. Pitfalls of FDG-PET for the diagnosis of osteoblastic bone metastases in patients with breast cancer. Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging, 2005, 32(11), 1253-1258.
[] [PMID: 16133397]
Iagaru, A.; Hope, T.; Veit-Haibach, P. PET/MRI in Oncology; Springer International Publishing AG, 2018.
Müller-Horvat, C.; Radny, P.; Eigentler, T.K.; Schäfer, J.; Pfannenberg, C.; Horger, M.; Khorchidi, S.; Nägele, T.; Garbe, C.; Claussen, C.D.; Schlemmer, H.P. Prospective comparison of the impact on treatment decisions of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma. Eur. J. Cancer, 2006, 42(3), 342-350.
[] [PMID: 16364631]
Pfannenberg, C.; Aschoff, P.; Schanz, S.; Eschmann, S.M.; Plathow, C.; Eigentler, T.K.; Garbe, C.; Brechtel, K.; Vonthein, R.; Bares, R.; Claussen, C.D.; Schlemmer, H.P. Prospective comparison of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in staging of advanced malignant melanoma. Eur. J. Cancer, 2007, 43(3), 557-564.
[] [PMID: 17224266]
Beiderwellen, K.; Geraldo, L.; Ruhlmann, V.; Heusch, P.; Gomez, B.; Nensa, F.; Umutlu, L.; Lauenstein, T.C. Accuracy of [18F]FDG PET/MRI for the Detection of Liver Metastases. PLoS One, 2015, 10(9)e0137285
[] [PMID: 26335246]
Laurent, V.; Trausch, G.; Bruot, O.; Olivier, P.; Felblinger, J.; Régent, D. Comparative study of two whole-body imaging techniques in the case of melanoma metastases: advantages of multi-contrast MRI examination including a diffusion-weighted sequence in comparison with PET-CT. Eur. J. Radiol., 2010, 75(3), 376-383.
[] [PMID: 19497694]
Schaarschmidt, B.M.; Grueneisen, J.; Stebner, V.; Klode, J.; Stoffels, I.; Umutlu, L.; Schadendorf, D.; Heusch, P.; Antoch, G.; Pöppel, T.D. Can integrated 18F-FDG PET/MR replace sentinel lymph node resection in malignant melanoma? Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging, 2018, 45(12), 2093-2102.
[] [PMID: 29876618]
Seith, F.; Forschner, A.; Schmidt, H.; Pfannenberg, C.; Gückel, B.; Nikolaou, K.; la Fougère, C.; Garbe, C.; Schwenzer, N. 18F-FDG-PET detects complete response to PD1-therapy in melanoma patients two weeks after therapy start. Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging, 2018, 45(1), 95-101.
[] [PMID: 28831583]
Burris, N.S.; Johnson, K.M.; Larson, P.E.; Hope, M.D.; Nagle, S.K.; Behr, S.C.; Hope, T.A. Detection of Small Pulmonary Nodules with Ultrashort Echo Time Sequences in Oncology Patients by Using a PET/MR System. Radiology, 2016, 278(1), 239-246.
[] [PMID: 26133050]

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2022 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy