Background: Drug metabolism is a complex mechanism of human body systems to detoxify foreign particles, chemicals, and drugs through bio alterations. It involves many biochemical reactions carried out by invivo enzyme systems present in the liver, kidney, intestine, lungs, and plasma. After drug administration, it crosses several biological membranes to reach into the target site for binding and produces the therapeutic response. After that, it may undergo detoxification and excretion to get rid of the biological systems. Most of the drugs and its metabolites are excreted through kidney via urination. Some drugs and their metabolites enter into intestinal mucosa and excrete through feces. Few of the drugs enter into hepatic circulation where they go into the intestinal tract. The drug leaves the liver via the bile duct and is excreted through feces. Therefore, the study of total methodology of drug biotransformation and interactions with various targets is costly.
Methods: To minimize time and cost, in-silico algorithms have been utilized for lead-like drug discovery. Insilico modeling is the process where a computer model with a suitable algorithm is developed to perform a controlled experiment. It involves the combination of both in-vivo and in-vitro experimentation with virtual trials, eliminating the non-significant variables from a large number of variable parameters. Whereas, the major challenge for the experimenter is the selection and validation of the preferred model, as well as precise simulation in real physiological status.
Results: The present review discussed the application of in-silico models to predict absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties of drug molecules and also access the net rate of metabolism of a compound.
Conclusion: It helps with the identification of enzyme isoforms; which are likely to metabolize a compound, as well as the concentration dependence of metabolism and the identification of expected metabolites. In terms of drug-drug interactions (DDIs), models have been described for the inhibition of metabolism of one compound by another, and for the compound–dependent induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes.
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