Malaria disease is a public health problem especially in tropical countries, 445.000 of malaria-related deaths have been reported in 2017. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs with 18-24 nucleotides in length, which have been demonstrated to regulate gene expression of several biological processes. The dysregulation of host immune-related gene expressions during the transcriptional process by microRNA has been extensively reported in malaria parasite invasion of erythrocytes infection. The candidate’s miRNAs would be used as potential biomarkers in the future and perspective. A systematic review on miRNAs as candidate clinical biomarkers in malaria infection has been established in this study. Electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane data bases) were screened and articles were included as per established selection criteria. We comprehensively searched to identify publications related to malaria and miRNA. PRISMA guidelines were followed, 262 articles were searched, duplicates and unconnected papers were excluded. Nineteen articles were included in the study. It was found that malaria parasite infected liver or tissue produce tissue-specific miRNAs and release to the blood stream. The association of miRNAs including miR-16, miR-155, miR-150, miR-451 and miR-223 with the dysregulations of immune-related genes expression such as PfEMP-1, IFN-γ, AGO- 1 AGO-2; IL4, CD80, CD86, CD36, ANG-1 and ANG-2 during early, severe and/or cerebral malaria infections indicate the potential use of those miRNAs as biomarkers for malaria infection.
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