The recent FDA approval of Sipuleucel-T for the treatment of prostate cancer represents an important milestone
of cancer immunotherapy, which, for the first time, validates the concept of bringing true clinical benefit to cancer patients
by stimulating patients’ own anti-tumor immunity. Among the different experimental cancer immunotherapies, oncolytic
virotherapy may represent a low-cost yet potent and personalized cancer vaccine for the treatment of solid tumors.
This review describes the constructions of several human herpes simplex virus (HSV)-derived oncolytic viruses as candidate
cancer vaccines, which induce specific and potent anti-tumor immunity in pre-clinical models, and thus resulting in
stronger overall anti-tumor efficacy as compared to oncolytic effect alone. This article also describes the approaches to
enhance the antitumor immunity of oncolytic HSVs, and in particular, the key role played by integrating membrane-fusion
activity into these viruses. Additionally, this article reviews the potential effect of certain chemotherapeutic agents (e.g.
cyclophosphamide) in boosting antitumor immunity induced by oncolytic HSV, and the mechanisms behind it. In summary,
all the preclinical and clinical data have suggested that HSV-based oncolytic virotherapies could likely be developed
as a new generation of cancer vaccines for the treatment of solid tumors.
Keywords: Oncolytic virus, cancer immunotherapy, HSV, CPA, combination therapy, Th1, solid tumor, prostate cancer, cancer immunotherapy, oncolytic virotherapy, human herpes simplex virus (HSV)
Rights & PermissionsPrintExport