An elevated risk of cardiovascular events is present in patients with mild-to-moderate renal function impairment.
Similar to patients with end-stage renal disease, this elevated risk can be accounted for by high prevalence of classic
and emergent cardiovascular risk factors and additional conditions that are more specifically related to the organ failure,
such as anemia and electrolyte disturbances. Among emergent cardiovascular risk factors, insulin resistance has been
demonstrated to contribute significantly to the cardiovascular risk in the general population and it is known that abnormalities
of glucose metabolism and hyperinsulinemia due to insulin resistance are present in patients with renal failure.
Because patients with more advanced disease stage have several abnormalities that might affect the cellular action of insulin
acting as important confounders, the relationship between insulin sensitivity and renal function should be better evaluated
in the early stages of renal failure. This article overviews the evidence supporting the presence of increased cardiovascular
morbidity and mortality in patients with early stages of renal disease, and examines the potential for insulin resistance
to contribute to cardiovascular risk in these patients.
Keywords: Endothelial cells, Euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, Glomerular filtration rate, HOMA index, Hyperinsulinemia,
Insulin receptor, electrolyte disturbances, hyperinsulinemia, cardiovascular
morbidity, insulin resistance
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