Targeting Parkinson’s - Tyrosine Hydroxylase and Oxidative Stress as Points of Interventions

Author(s): Mohd Shahnawaz Khan , Shams Tabrez , Medha Priyadarshini , Shubha Priyamvada , Mohd M. Khan .

Journal Name: CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets

Volume 11 , Issue 4 , 2012

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Abstract:

Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the progressive loss of the dopaminergic neurons leading to decrease in striatal dopamine (DA) levels. In the present review, our focus was on recent advances in the treatment procedures of PD to achieve an increase in deficient tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity and/or expression. Stimulation of residual TH activity by the cofactors, 6R-L-erythro-tetrahydrobiopterin (BPH4) or NADH, or by brain transplant of natural TH-containing cells (fetal substantia nigra) or genetically engineered TH-containing cells, has been tried experimentally and clinically lately. As a promising approach to the gene therapy, intrastriatal expression of DAsynthesizing enzymes through transduction with separate adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors/ marrow stromal cells (MSCs) or nonviral intravenous administration of rat transferrin receptor monoclonal antibody (TfRmAb)-targeted PEGylated immunoliposomes (PILs) has been found to be effective in animal models. Oxidative stress has been identified as one of the intermediary risk factors that could initiate and/or promote degeneration of DA neurons. TH itself is a prime target of oxidative/nitrosative injury. Certain superoxide dismutase and catalase mimetic prevented nitration of TH in cultured dopaminergic neurons. Therefore, development of therapeutic agents that can prevent formation of or specifically remove nitrating agents without interfering with normal neuronal function may protect protein from inactivation and provide means of limiting neuronal injury in PD. Non-pharmacological approaches such as diet therapy or use of active constituents of plants and phytomedicines have also emerged as a new - area of high interest. New treatment strategies for TH dysfunction rectification, a provision for neuroprotection in PD, seem to be on the horizon with many therapies under investigation.

Keywords: Oxidative stress, Parkinson’s disease, phytochemicals, tyrosine hydroxylase.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 11
ISSUE: 4
Year: 2012
Page: [369 - 380]
Pages: 12
DOI: 10.2174/187152712800792848
Price: $58

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