Stem Cells From Umbilical Cord and Placenta for Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering
Umile Giuseppe Longo, Mattia Loppini, Alessandra Berton, Luca La Verde, Wasim S. Khan and Vincenzo Denaro
Affiliation: Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Campus Bio-Medico University, Via Alvaro del Portillo, 200, 00128 Trigoria, Rome, Italy.
Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from amnion/amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood, placental tissue, umbilical
cord vein and the Wharton’s Jelly are promising candidates for musculoskeletal tissue engineering of bone and cartilage
tissues. The extracorporeal nature of this source avoids the ethical concerns that plague the isolation of embryonic stem
cells. Moreover, the harvesting does not require the invasive and discomfort extraction procedures as well as patient risks
that attend adult stem cell isolation. Current preclinical studies support the application of these cell-based therapies for the
regeneration of musculoskeletal tissues. We performed a review of the literature to focus on actual knowledge and the future
perspectives of the stem cells deriving from umbilical cord and placenta for musculoskeletal tissue engineering.
Keywords: Bone, cartilage, mesenchymal stem cells, placenta, tissue engineering, umbilical cord, cell-based therapies, regeneration, scaffolds, bone marrow
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