Antimicrobial peptides have been extensively investigated for their potential applications as therapeutics and
food biopreservatives. The antimicrobial activity may be impaired by the susceptibility for proteolytic degradation and
undesirable interactions of the antimicrobial peptide in the biological environment. Development of nanostructures for
entrapment and delivery of antimicrobial peptides may represent an alternative to the direct application of these
substances. Lipid nanovesicles have been developed for encapsulation of antimicrobial peptides. Phosphatidylcholine is
often employed in liposome manufacture, which is mostly achieved by the thin-film hydration method. Nanofibers may
allow different physical modes of drug loading, including direct adsorption on the nanofiber surface or the assembly of
drug-loaded nanoparticles. Self-assembled peptides reveal attractive features as nanostructures for applications in drug
delivery and promising as antimicrobial agent for treatment of brain infections. Magnetic nanoparticles and nanotubules
are also potential structures for entrapment of antimicrobial peptides. Nanoparticles can be also chemically modified with
specific cell surface ligands to enhance cell adhesion and site specific delivery. This article reviews the most important
nanostructures as promising tools for peptide delivery systems.
Keywords: Antimicrobial, bacteriocin, bioactive peptides, drug delivery, encapsulation, liposome, nanostructure, nanoparticle.
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